CSS编写的网页打开流畅相关知识与注意点

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CSS编写的网页打开流畅相关知识与注意点

来源: 作者: 时间:2015-12-16 18:25
我们都熟知JavaScript可能会对Web页面的加载与显示产生较大的影响,因此我们常常关注JavaScript是不是会占用客户端较多的资源,然而大部分都会忽略的一件有趣的事情,CSS也会对Web页面
  我们都熟知JavaScript可能会对Web页面的加载与显示产生较大的影响,因此我们常常关注JavaScript是不是会占用客户端较多的资源,然而大部分都会忽略的一件有趣的事情,CSS也会对Web页面载入的效率产生影响。   我们罗列了十几条相关的知识与注意点,大家可以系统的探讨
  我们都熟知JavaScript可能会对Web页面的加载与显示产生较大的影响,因此我们常常关注JavaScript是不是会占用客户端较多的资源,然而大部分都会忽略的一件有趣的事情,CSS也会对Web页面载入的效率产生影响。
  我们罗列了十几条相关的知识与注意点,大家可以系统的探讨一下,让我们编写的Web页面打开更加流畅。
  请不要告诉我,你看不懂E文,只是你不愿意看!!!
  1、Howthestylesystembreaksuprules
  Thestylesystembreaksrulesupintofourprimarycategories.Itiscriticaltounderstandthesecategories,astheyarethefirstlineofdefenseasfarasrulematchingisconcerned.Iusethetermkeyselectorintheparagraphsthatfollow.Thekeyselectorisdefinedtobetherightmostoccurrenceofanidselector,aclassselector,oratagselector.
  1.1、IDRules
  ThefirstcategoryconsistsofthoserulesthathaveanIDselectorastheirkeyselector.
button#backButton{}/*ThisisanID-categorizedrule*/
#urlBar[type="autocomplete"]{}/*ThisisanID-categorizedrule*/
treeitem>treerow>treecell#myCell:active{}/*ThisisanID-categorizedrule*/
  1.2、ClassRules
Ifarulehasaclassspecifiedasitskeyselector,thenitfallsintothiscategory.
button.toolbarButton{}/*Aclass-basedrule*/
.fancyText{}/*Aclass-basedrule*/
menuitem>.menu-left[checked="true"]{}/*Aclass-basedrule*/
  1.3、TagRules
  IfnoclassorIDisspecifiedasthekeyselector,thenthenextpotentialcategoryforaruleisthetagcategory.Ifarulehasatagspecifiedasitskeyselector,thentherulefallsintothiscategory.
td{}/*Atag-basedrule*/
treeitem>treerow{}/*Atag-basedrule*/
input[type="checkbox"]{}/*Atag-basedrule*/
  1.4、UniversalRules
  Allotherrulesfallintothiscategory.
:table{}/*Auniversalrule*/
[hidden="true"]{}/*Auniversalrule*/
*{}/*Auniversalrule*/
tree>[collapsed="true"]{}/*Auniversalrule*/
  2、HowtheStyleSystemMatchesRules
  Thestylesystemmatchesarulebystartingwiththerightmostselectorandmovingtotheleftthroughtherule'sselectors.Aslongasyourlittlesubtreecontinuestocheckout,thestylesystemwillcontinuemovingtotheleftuntiliteithermatchestheruleorbailsoutbecauseofamismatch.
  Yourfirstlineofdefenseistherulefilteringthatoccursbasedonthetypeofthekeyselector.Thepurposeofthiscategorizationistofilteroutrulessothatyoudon'tevenhavetowastetimetryingtomatchthem.Thisisthekeytodramaticallyincreasingperformance.Thefewerrulesthatyouevenhavetocheckforagivenelement,thefasterstyleresolutionwillbe.Asanexample,ifyourelementhasanID,thenonlyIDrulesthatmatchyourelement'sIDwillbechecked.Onlyclassrulesforaclassfoundonyourelementwillbechecked.Onlytagrulesthatmatchyourtagwillbechecked.Universalruleswillalwaysbechecked.
  3、GuidelinesforEfficientCSS
  3.1、AvoidUniversalRules!
  Makesurearuledoesn'tendupintheuniversalcategory!
  3.2、Don'tqualifyID-categorizedruleswithtagnamesorclasses
  IfyouhaveastylerulethathasanIDselectorasitskeyselector,don'tbotheralsoaddingthetagnametotherule.IDsareunique,soyou'reslowingdownthematchingfornorealreason.
BAD-button#backButton{}
BAD-.menu-left#newMenuIcon{}
GOOD-#backButton{}
GOOD-#newMenuIcon{}
  3.3、Don'tqualifyclass-categorizedruleswithtagnames
  Similartotheruleabove,allofourclasseswillbeunique.Theconventionyoushoulduseistoincludethetagnameintheclassname.
BAD-treecell.indented{}
GOOD-.treecell-indented{}
  3.4、Trytoputrulesintothemostspecificcategoryyoucan!
  Thesinglebiggestcauseofslowdowninoursystemisthatwehavetoomanyrulesinthetagcategory.Byaddingclassestoourelements,wecanfurthersubdividetheserulesintoclasscategories,andthenwenolongerwastetimetryingtomatchasmanyrulesforagiventag.
BAD-treeitem[mailfolder="true"]>treerow>treecell{}
GOOD-.treecell-mailfolder{}
  3.5、Avoidthedescendantselector!
  ThedescendantselectoristhemostexpensiveselectorinCSS.Itisdreadfullyexpensive,especiallyifaruleusingtheselectorisinthetagoruniversalcategory.Frequentlywhatisreallydesiredisthechildselector.TheuseofthedescendantselectorisbannedinUICSSwithouttheexplicitapprovalofyourskin'smoduleowner.
BAD-treeheadtreerowtreecell{}
BETTER,BUTSTILLBAD(seenextguideline)-treehead>treerow>treecell{}
  3.6、Tag-categorizedrulesshouldnevercontainachildselector!
  Avoidusingthechildselectorwithtag-categorizedrules.Youwilldramaticallyincreasethematchingtime(especiallyiftheruleislikelytobematchedmoreoftenthannot)foralloccurrencesofthatelement.
BAD-treehead>treerow>treecell{}
BEST-.treecell-header{}
  3.7、Questionallusagesofthechildselector!
  Becarefulaboutusingthechildselector.Ifyoucancomeupwithawaytoavoidhavingtouseit,doso.Inparticular,thechildselectorisfrequentlyusedwithRDFtreesandmenuslikeso.
BAD-treeitem[IsImapServer="true"]>treerow>.tree-folderpane-icon{}
  RememberthatattributesfromRDFcanbeduplicatedinatemplate!TakeadvantageofthisfacttoduplicateRDFpropertiesonchildXULelementsthatwishtochangebasedoffthatattribute.
GOOD-.tree-folderpane-icon[IsImapServer="true"]{}
  3.8、Relyoninheritance!
  Learnwhichpropertiesinherit,andallowthemtodoso!WehaveexplicitlysetupXULwidgetrysothatyoucanputlist-style-image(justoneexample)orfontrulesontheparenttag,anditwillfilterintotheanonymouscontent.Youdon'thavetowastetimewritingarulethattalksdirectlytotheanonymouscontent.
BAD-#bookmarkMenuItem>.menu-left{list-style-image:url(blah);}
GOOD-#bookmarkMenuItem{list-style-image:url(blah);}
  Intheaboveexample,thedesiretostyletheanonymouscontent(withoutunderstandingthatlist-style-imageinherits)resultedinarulethatwasintheclasscategory,whenthisrulereallyshouldhaveendedupbeinginthemostspecificcategoryofall,theIDcategory.
  Remember,especiallywithanonymouscontent,thattheyallhavethesameclasses!Thebadruleabovecausestheiconofeverymenutobecheckedtoseeifitiscontainedinthebookmarksmenuitem.Thisishideouslyexpensive(sincetherearemanymenus);thisrulenevershouldhaveevenbeencheckedbyanymenuotherthanthebookmarksmenu.
  3.9、Use-moz-image-region!
  Puttingabunchofimagesintoasingleimagefileandselectingthemwith-moz-image-regionperformssignificantlybetterthanputtingeachimageintoitsownfile.
  OriginalDocumentInformation-Author:DavidHyatt
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