文件队列 QueueFile

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文件队列 QueueFile

来源: 作者: 时间:2016-01-29 09:12
** * Copyright (C) 2010 Square, Inc * * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2 0 (the License); * you may not use this file except in compliance with the Li
/**
 * Copyright (C) 2010 Square, Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package com.squareup.util;
 
import com.squareup.Square;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.RandomAccessFile;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
 
/**
 * A reliable, efficient, file-based, FIFO queue. Additions and removals are
 * O(1). All operations are atomic. Writes are synchronous; data will be
 * written to disk before an operation returns. The underlying file is
 * structured to survive process and even system crashes. If an I/O exception
 * is thrown during a mutating change, the change is aborted. It is safe to
 * continue to use a [email protected] QueueFile} instance after an exception.
 *
 * <p>All operations are synchronized. In a traditional queue, the remove
 * operation returns an element. In this queue, [email protected] #peek} and [email protected]
 * #remove} are used in conjunction. Use [email protected] peek} to retrieve the first
 * element, and then [email protected] remove} to remove it after successful processing.
 * If the system crashes after [email protected] peek} and during processing, the element
 * will remain in the queue, to be processed when the system restarts.
 *
 * <p><b><font color="red">NOTE:</font></b> The current implementation is
 * built for file systems that support atomic segment writes (like YAFFS).
 * Most conventional file systems don't support this; if the power goes out
 * while writing a segment, the segment will contain garbage and the file will
 * be corrupt. We'll add journaling support so this class can be used with
 * more file systems later.
 *
 * @author Bob Lee ()
 */
public class QueueFile {
 
/** Initial file size in bytes. */
private static final int INITIAL_LENGTH = 4096; // one file system block
 
/** Length of header in bytes. */
static final int HEADER_LENGTH = 16;
 
/**
  * The underlying file. Uses a ring buffer to store entries. Designed so
  * that a modification isn't committed or visible until we write the header.
  * The header is much smaller than a segment. So long as the underlying file
  * system supports atomic segment writes, changes to the queue are atomic.
  * Storing the file length ensures we can recover from a failed expansion
  * (i.e. if setting the file length succeeds but the process dies before the
  * data can be copied).
  *
  * <pre>
  * Format:
  * Header (16 bytes)
  * Element Ring Buffer (File Length - 16 bytes)
  *
  * Header:
  * File Length (4 bytes)
  * Element Count (4 bytes)
  * First Element Position (4 bytes, =0 if null)
  * Last Element Position (4 bytes, =0 if null)
  *
  * Element:
  * Length (4 bytes)
  * Data (Length bytes)
  * </pre>
  */
private final RandomAccessFile raf;
 
/** Cached file length. Always a power of 2. */
int fileLength;
 
/** Number of elements. */
private int elementCount;
 
/** Pointer to first (or eldest) element. */
private Element first;
 
/** Pointer to last (or newest) element. */
private Element last;
 
/** In-memory buffer. Big enough to hold the header. */
private final byte[] buffer = new byte[16];
 
/**
  * Constructs a new queue backed by the given file. Only one [email protected] QueueFile}
  * instance should access a given file at a time.
  */
public QueueFile(File file) throws IOException {
if (!file.exists()) initialize(file);
raf = open(file);
readHeader();
}
 
/** For testing. */
QueueFile(RandomAccessFile raf) throws IOException {
this.raf = raf;
readHeader();
}
 
/**
  * Stores int in buffer. The behavior is equivalent to calling
  * [email protected] RandomAccessFile#writeInt}.
  */
private static void writeInt(byte[] buffer, int offset, int value) {
buffer[offset] = (byte) (value >> 24);
buffer[offset + 1] = (byte) (value >> 16);
buffer[offset + 2] = (byte) (value >> 8);
buffer[offset + 3] = (byte) value;
}
 
/**
  * Stores int values in buffer. The behavior is equivalent to calling
  * [email protected] RandomAccessFile#writeInt} for each value.
  */
private static void writeInts(byte[] buffer, int... values) {
int offset = 0;
for (int value : values) {
writeInt(buffer, offset, value);
offset += 4;
}
}
 
/**
  * Reads an int from a byte[].
  */
private static int readInt(byte[] buffer, int offset) {
return ((buffer[offset] & 0xff) << 24)
+ ((buffer[offset + 1] & 0xff) << 16)
+ ((buffer[offset + 2] & 0xff) << 8)
+ (buffer[offset + 3] & 0xff);
}
 
/**
  * Reads the header.
  */
private void readHeader() throws IOException {
raf.seek(0);
raf.readFully(buffer);
fileLength = readInt(buffer, 0);
elementCount = readInt(buffer, 4);
int firstOffset = readInt(buffer, 8);
int lastOffset = readInt(buffer, 12);
first = readElement(firstOffset);
last = readElement(lastOffset);
}
 
/**
  * Writes header atomically. The arguments contain the updated values. The
  * class member fields should not have changed yet. This only updates the
  * state in the file. It's up to the caller to update the class member
  * variables *after* this call succeeds. Assumes segment writes are atomic
  * in the underlying file system.
  */
private void writeHeader(int fileLength, int elementCount, int firstPosition,
int lastPosition) throws IOException {
writeInts(buffer, fileLength, elementCount, firstPosition, lastPosition);
raf.seek(0);
raf.write(buffer);
}
 
/**
  * Returns the Element for the given offset.
  */
private Element readElement(int position) throws IOException {
if (position == 0) return Element.NULL;
raf.seek(position);
return new Element(position, raf.readInt());
}
 
/** Atomically initializes a new file. */
private static void initialize(File file) throws IOException {
// Use a temp file so we don't leave a partially-initialized file.
File tempFile = new File(file.getPath() + ".tmp");
RandomAccessFile raf = open(tempFile);
try {
raf.setLength(INITIAL_LENGTH);
raf.seek(0);
byte[] headerBuffer = new byte[16];
writeInts(headerBuffer, INITIAL_LENGTH, 0, 0, 0);
raf.write(headerBuffer);
} finally {
raf.close();
}
 
// A rename is atomic.
if (!tempFile.renameTo(file)) throw new IOException("Rename failed!");
}
 
/**
  * Opens a random access file that writes synchronously.
  */
private static RandomAccessFile open(File file) throws FileNotFoundException {
return new RandomAccessFile(file, "rwd");
}
 
/**
  * Wraps the position if it exceeds the end of the file.
  */
private int wrapPosition(int position) {
return position < fileLength ? position
: HEADER_LENGTH + position - fileLength;
}
 
/**
  * Writes count bytes from buffer to position in file. Automatically wraps
  * write if position is past the end of the file or if buffer overlaps it.
  *
  * @param position in file to write to
  * @param buffer to write from
  * @param count # of bytes to write
  */
private void ringWrite(int position, byte[] buffer, int offset, int count)
throws IOException {
position = wrapPosition(position);
if (position + count <= fileLength) {
raf.seek(position);
raf.write(buffer, offset, count);
} else {
// The write overlaps the EOF.
// # of bytes to write before the EOF.
int beforeEof = fileLength - position;
raf.seek(position);
raf.write(buffer, offset, beforeEof);
raf.seek(HEADER_LENGTH);
raf.write(buffer, offset + beforeEof, count - beforeEof);
}
}
 
/**
  * Reads count bytes into buffer from file. Wraps if necessary.
  *
  * @param position in file to read from
  * @param buffer to read into
  * @param count # of bytes to read
  */
private void ringRead(int position, byte[] buffer, int offset, int count)
throws IOException {
position = wrapPosition(position);
if (position + count <= fileLength) {
raf.seek(position);
raf.readFully(buffer, 0, count);
} else {
// The read overlaps the EOF.
// # of bytes to read before the EOF.
int beforeEof = fileLength - position;
raf.seek(position);
raf.readFully(buffer, offset, beforeEof);
raf.seek(HEADER_LENGTH);
raf.readFully(buffer, offset + beforeEof, count - beforeEof);
}
}
 
/**
  * Adds an element to the end of the queue.
  *
  * @param data to copy bytes from
  */
public void add(byte[] data) throws IOException {
add(data, 0, data.length);
}
 
/**
  * Adds an element to the end of the queue.
  *
  * @param data to copy bytes from
  * @param offset to start from in buffer
  * @param count number of bytes to copy
  *
  * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if [email protected] offset < 0} or
  * [email protected] count < 0}, or if [email protected] offset + count} is bigger than the length
  * of [email protected] buffer}.
  */
public synchronized void add(byte[] data, int offset, int count)
throws IOException {
Objects.nonNull(data, "buffer");
if ((offset | count) < 0 || count > data.length - offset) {
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
}
 
expandIfNecessary(count);
 
// Insert a new element after the current last element.
boolean wasEmpty = isEmpty();
int position = wasEmpty ? HEADER_LENGTH : wrapPosition(
last.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH + last.length);
Element newLast = new Element(position, count);
 
// Write length.
writeInt(buffer, 0, count);
ringWrite(newLast.position, buffer, 0, Element.HEADER_LENGTH);
 
// Write data.
ringWrite(newLast.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH, data, offset, count);
 
// Commit the addition. If wasEmpty, first == last.
int firstPosition = wasEmpty ? newLast.position : first.position;
writeHeader(fileLength, elementCount + 1, firstPosition, newLast.position);
last = newLast;
elementCount++;
if (wasEmpty) first = last; // first element
}
 
/**
  * Returns the number of used bytes.
  */
private int usedBytes() {
if (elementCount == 0) return HEADER_LENGTH;
 
if (last.position >= first.position) {
// Contiguous queue.
return (last.position - first.position) // all but last entry
+ Element.HEADER_LENGTH + last.length // last entry
+ HEADER_LENGTH;
} else {
// tail < head. The queue wraps.
return last.position // buffer front + header
+ Element.HEADER_LENGTH + last.length // last entry
+ fileLength - first.position; // buffer end
}
}
 
/**
  * Returns number of unused bytes.
  */
private int remainingBytes() {
return fileLength - usedBytes();
}
 
/**
  * Returns true if this queue contains no entries.
  */
public synchronized boolean isEmpty() {
return elementCount == 0;
}
 
/**
  * If necessary, expands the file to accommodate an additional element of the
  * given length.
  *
  * @param dataLength length of data being added
  */
private void expandIfNecessary(int dataLength) throws IOException {
int elementLength = Element.HEADER_LENGTH + dataLength;
int remainingBytes = remainingBytes();
if (remainingBytes >= elementLength) return;
 
// Expand.
int previousLength = fileLength;
int newLength;
// Double the length until we can fit the new data.
do {
remainingBytes += previousLength;
newLength = previousLength << 1;
previousLength = newLength;
} while (remainingBytes < elementLength);
raf.setLength(newLength);
 
// If the buffer is split, we need to make it contiguous.
if (last.position < first.position) {
FileChannel channel = raf.getChannel();
channel.position(fileLength); // destination position
int count = last.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH + last.length
- HEADER_LENGTH;
if (channel.transferTo(HEADER_LENGTH, count, channel) != count) {
throw new AssertionError("Copied insufficient number of bytes!");
}
 
// Commit the expansion.
int newLastPosition = fileLength + last.position - HEADER_LENGTH;
writeHeader(newLength, elementCount, first.position, newLastPosition);
last = new Element(newLastPosition, last.length);
} else {
writeHeader(newLength, elementCount, first.position, last.position);
}
fileLength = newLength;
}
 
/**
  * Reads the eldest element. Returns null if the queue is empty.
  */
public synchronized byte[] peek() throws IOException {
if (isEmpty()) return null;
int length = first.length;
byte[] data = new byte[length];
ringRead(first.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH, data, 0, length);
return data;
}
 
/**
  * Invokes reader with the eldest element, if an element is available.
  */
public synchronized void peek(ElementReader reader) throws IOException {
if (elementCount > 0) {
reader.read(new ElementInputStream(first), first.length);
}
}
 
/**
  * Invokes the given reader once for each element in the queue, from
  * eldest to most recently added.
  */
public synchronized void forEach(ElementReader reader) throws IOException {
int position = first.position;
for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++) {
Element current = readElement(position);
reader.read(new ElementInputStream(current), current.length);
position = wrapPosition(current.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH
+ current.length);
}
}
 
/**
  * Reads a single element.
  */
private class ElementInputStream extends InputStream {
private int position;
private int remaining;
private ElementInputStream(Element element) {
position = wrapPosition(element.position + Element.HEADER_LENGTH);
remaining = element.length;
}
@Override public int read(byte[] buffer, int offset, int length)
throws IOException {
Objects.nonNull(buffer, "buffer");
if ((offset | length) < 0 || length > buffer.length - offset) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException();
}
if (length > remaining) length = remaining;
ringRead(position, buffer, offset, length);
position = wrapPosition(position + length);
remaining -= length;
return length;
}
@Override public int read() throws IOException {
if (remaining == 0) return -1;
raf.seek(position);
int b = raf.read();
position = wrapPosition(position + 1);
remaining--;
return b;
}
}
 
/**
  * Returns the number of elements in this queue.
  */
public synchronized int size() {
return elementCount;
}
 
/**
  * Removes the eldest element.
  *
  * @throw NoSuchElementException if the queue is empty
  */
public synchronized void remove() throws IOException {
if (isEmpty()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
if (elementCount == 1) {
clear();
} else {
// assert elementCount > 1
int newFirstPosition = wrapPosition(first.position
+ Element.HEADER_LENGTH + first.length);
ringRead(newFirstPosition, buffer, 0, Element.HEADER_LENGTH);
int length = readInt(buffer, 0);
writeHeader(fileLength, elementCount - 1, newFirstPosition, last.position);
elementCount--;
first = new Element(newFirstPosition, length);
}
}
 
/**
  * Clears this queue. Truncates the file to the initial size.
  */
public synchronized void clear() throws IOException {
if (fileLength > INITIAL_LENGTH) raf.setLength(INITIAL_LENGTH);
writeHeader(INITIAL_LENGTH, 0, 0, 0);
elementCount = 0;
first = last = Element.NULL;
fileLength = INITIAL_LENGTH;
}
 
/**
  * Closes the underlying file.
  */
public synchronized void close() throws IOException {
raf.close();
}
 
@Override public String toString() {
final StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder();
builder.append(getClass().getSimpleName()).append('[');
builder.append("fileLength=").append(fileLength);
builder.append(", size=").append(elementCount);
builder.append(", first=").append(first);
builder.append(", last=").append(last);
builder.append(", element lengths=[");
try {
forEach(new ElementReader() {
boolean first = true;
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
if (first) {
first = false;
} else {
builder.append(", ");
}
builder.append(length);
}
});
} catch (IOException e) {
Square.warning(e);
}
builder.append("]]");
return builder.toString();
}
 
/** A pointer to an element. */
static class Element {
 
/** Length of element header in bytes. */
static final int HEADER_LENGTH = 4;
 
/** Null element. */
static final Element NULL = new Element(0, 0);
 
/** Position in file. */
final int position;
 
/** The length of the data. */
final int length;
 
/**
  * Constructs a new element.
  *
  * @param position within file
  * @param length of data
  */
Element(int position, int length) {
this.position = position;
this.length = length;
}
 
@Override public String toString() {
return getClass().getSimpleName() + "["
+ "position = " + position
+ ", length = " + length + "]";
}
}
 
/**
  * Reads queue elements. Enables partial reads as opposed to reading all
  * of the bytes into a byte[].
  */
public interface ElementReader {
 
/*
  * TODO: Support remove() call from read().
  */
 
/**
  * Called once per element.
  *
  * @param in stream of element data. Reads as many bytes as requested,
  * unless fewer than the request number of bytes remains, in which case it
  * reads all the remaining bytes.
  * @param length of element data in bytes
  */
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException;
}
}
 
QueueFileTest.java:
 
package com.squareup.util;
 
import android.test.TestCase;
import com.squareup.Square;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.RandomAccessFile;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Queue;
import junit.framework.ComparisonFailure;
 
/**
 * Tests for QueueFile.
 *
 * @author Bob Lee ()
 */
public class QueueFileTest extends AndroidTestCase {
 
/**
  * Takes up 33401 bytes in the queue (N*(N+1)/2+4*N). Picked 254 instead of
  * 255 so that the number of bytes isn't a multiple of 4.
  */
private static int N = 254; //
private static byte[][] values = new byte[N][];
static {
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
byte[] value = new byte[i];
// Example: values[3] = { 3, 2, 1 }
for (int ii = 0; ii < i; ii++) value[ii] = (byte) (i - ii);
values[i] = value;
}
}
 
private File file;
 
@Override protected void setUp() throws Exception {
file = getContext().getFileStreamPath("test.queue");
file.delete();
}
 
@Override protected void tearDown() throws Exception {
file.delete();
}
 
public void testAddOneElement() throws IOException {
// This test ensures that we update 'first' correctly.
QueueFile queue = new QueueFile(file);
byte[] expected = values[253];
queue.add(expected);
assertEquals(expected, queue.peek());
queue.close();
queue = new QueueFile(file);
assertEquals(expected, queue.peek());
}
 
public void testAddAndRemoveElements() throws IOException {
long start = System.nanoTime();
 
Queue<byte[]> expected = new LinkedList<byte[]>();
 
for (int round = 0; round < 5; round++) {
QueueFile queue = new QueueFile(file);
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
queue.add(values[i]);
expected.add(values[i]);
}
 
// Leave N elements in round N, 15 total for 5 rounds. Removing all the
// elements would be like starting with an empty queue.
for (int i = 0; i < N - round - 1; i++) {
assertEquals(expected.remove(), queue.peek());
queue.remove();
}
queue.close();
}
 
// Remove and validate remaining 15 elements.
QueueFile queue = new QueueFile(file);
assertEquals(15, queue.size());
assertEquals(expected.size(), queue.size());
while (!expected.isEmpty()) {
assertEquals(expected.remove(), queue.peek());
queue.remove();
}
queue.close();
 
// length() returns 0, but I checked the size w/ 'ls', and it is correct.
// assertEquals(65536, file.length());
 
Square.debug("Ran in " + ((System.nanoTime() - start) / 1000000) + "ms.");
}
 
/**
  * Tests queue expansion when the data crosses EOF.
  */
public void testSplitExpansion() throws IOException {
// This should result in 3560 bytes.
int max = 80;
 
Queue<byte[]> expected = new LinkedList<byte[]>();
QueueFile queue = new QueueFile(file);
 
for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) {
expected.add(values[i]);
queue.add(values[i]);
}
 
// Remove all but 1.
for (int i = 1; i < max; i++) {
assertEquals(expected.remove(), queue.peek());
queue.remove();
}
 
// This should wrap around before expanding.
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
expected.add(values[i]);
queue.add(values[i]);
}
 
while (!expected.isEmpty()) {
assertEquals(expected.remove(), queue.peek());
queue.remove();
}
 
queue.close();
}
 
public void testFailedAdd() throws IOException {
QueueFile queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
queueFile.add(values[253]);
queueFile.close();
 
final BrokenRandomAccessFile braf = new BrokenRandomAccessFile(file, "rwd");
queueFile = new QueueFile(braf);
 
try {
queueFile.add(values[252]);
fail();
} catch (IOException e) { /* expected */ }
 
braf.rejectCommit = false;
 
// Allow a subsequent add to succeed.
queueFile.add(values[251]);
 
queueFile.close();
 
queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
assertEquals(2, queueFile.size());
assertEquals(values[253], queueFile.peek());
queueFile.remove();
assertEquals(values[251], queueFile.peek());
}
 
public void testFailedRemoval() throws IOException {
QueueFile queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
queueFile.add(values[253]);
queueFile.close();
 
final BrokenRandomAccessFile braf = new BrokenRandomAccessFile(file, "rwd");
queueFile = new QueueFile(braf);
 
try {
queueFile.remove();
fail();
} catch (IOException e) { /* expected */ }
 
queueFile.close();
 
queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
assertEquals(1, queueFile.size());
assertEquals(values[253], queueFile.peek());
 
queueFile.add(values[99]);
queueFile.remove();
assertEquals(values[99], queueFile.peek());
}
 
public void testFailedExpansion() throws IOException {
QueueFile queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
queueFile.add(values[253]);
queueFile.close();
 
final BrokenRandomAccessFile braf = new BrokenRandomAccessFile(file, "rwd");
queueFile = new QueueFile(braf);
 
try {
// This should trigger an expansion which should fail.
queueFile.add(new byte[8000]);
fail();
} catch (IOException e) { /* expected */ }
 
queueFile.close();
 
queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
 
assertEquals(1, queueFile.size());
assertEquals(values[253], queueFile.peek());
assertEquals(4096, queueFile.fileLength);
 
queueFile.add(values[99]);
queueFile.remove();
assertEquals(values[99], queueFile.peek());
}
 
public void testPeakWithElementReader() throws IOException {
QueueFile queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
final byte[] a = { 1, 2 };
queueFile.add(a);
final byte[] b = { 3, 4, 5 };
queueFile.add(b);
 
queueFile.peek(new QueueFile.ElementReader() {
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
assertEquals(length, 2);
byte[] actual = new byte[length];
in.read(actual);
assertEquals(a, actual);
}
});
 
queueFile.peek(new QueueFile.ElementReader() {
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
assertEquals(length, 2);
assertEquals(1, in.read());
assertEquals(2, in.read());
assertEquals(-1, in.read());
}
});
 
queueFile.remove();
 
queueFile.peek(new QueueFile.ElementReader() {
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
assertEquals(length, 3);
byte[] actual = new byte[length];
in.read(actual);
assertEquals(b, actual);
}
});
 
assertEquals(b, queueFile.peek());
assertEquals(1, queueFile.size());
}
 
public void testForEach() throws IOException {
QueueFile queueFile = new QueueFile(file);
 
final byte[] a = { 1, 2 };
queueFile.add(a);
final byte[] b = { 3, 4, 5 };
queueFile.add(b);
 
final int[] iteration = new int[] { 0 };
QueueFile.ElementReader elementReader = new QueueFile.ElementReader() {
public void read(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
if (iteration[0] == 0) {
assertEquals(length, 2);
byte[] actual = new byte[length];
in.read(actual);
assertEquals(a, actual);
} else if (iteration[0] == 1) {
assertEquals(length, 3);
byte[] actual = new byte[length];
in.read(actual);
assertEquals(b, actual);
} else {
fail();
}
iteration[0]++;
}
};
 
queueFile.forEach(elementReader);
 
assertEquals(a, queueFile.peek());
assertEquals(2, iteration[0]);
}
 
/**
  * Compares two byte[]s for equality.
  */
private static void assertEquals(byte[] expected, byte[] actual) {
if (!Arrays.equals(expected, actual)) {
throw new ComparisonFailure(null, Arrays.toString(expected),
Arrays.toString(actual));
}
}
 
/**
  * A RandomAccessFile that can break when you go to write the COMMITTED
  * status.
  */
static class BrokenRandomAccessFile extends RandomAccessFile {
boolean rejectCommit = true;
BrokenRandomAccessFile(File file, String mode)
throws FileNotFoundException {
super(file, mode);
}
@Override public void write(byte[] buffer) throws IOException {
if (rejectCommit && getFilePointer() == 0) {
throw new IOException("No commit for you!");
}
super.write(buffer);
}
}
}
 

 

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