IOS手势操作(拖动、捏合、旋转、点按、长按、轻扫、自定义)

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IOS手势操作(拖动、捏合、旋转、点按、长按、轻扫、自定义)

来源:互联网 作者:脚本宝典 时间:2015-07-31 13:08 【

下面通过图文并茂的方式给大家分享下IOS手势操作(拖动、捏合、旋转、点按、长按、轻扫、自定义)的相关内容。1、UIGestureRecognizer介绍手势识别在iOS中非常重要,他极大地提高了移
下面通过图文并茂的方式给大家分享下IOS手势操作(拖动、捏合、旋转、点按、长按、轻扫、自定义)的相关内容。
1、UIGestureRecognizer 介绍
手势识别在 iOS 中非常重要,他极大地提高了移动设备的使用便捷性。
iOS 系统在 3.2 以后,他提供了一些常用的手势(UIGestureRecognizer 的子类),开发者可以直接使用他们进行手势操作。
UIPanGestureRecognizer(拖动)
UIPinchGestureRecognizer(捏合)
UIRotationGestureRecognizer(旋转)
UITapGestureRecognizer(点按)
UILongPressGestureRecognizer(长按)
UISwipeGestureRecognizer(轻扫)
另外,可以通过继承 UIGestureRecognizer 类,实现自定义手势(手势识别器类)。
PS:自定义手势时,需要 #import <UIKit/UIGestureRecognizerSubclass.h>,一般需实现如下方法:

复制代码代码如下:

- (void)reset;

- (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event;
- (void)touchesMoved:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event;
- (void)touchesEnded:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event;
- (void)touchesCancelled:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event;
//以上方法在分类 UIGestureRecognizer (UIGestureRecognizerProtected) 中声明,更多方法声明请自行查看

UIGestureRecognizer 的继承关系如下:
2、手势状态
在六种手势识别中,只有一种手势是离散型手势,他就是 UITapGestureRecognizer。
离散型手势的特点就是:一旦识别就无法取消,而且只会调用一次手势操作事件(初始化手势时指定的回调方法)。
换句话说其他五种手势是连续型手势,而连续型手势的特点就是:会多次调用手势操作事件,而且在连续手势识别后可以取消手势。从下图可以看出两者调用操作事件的次数是不同的:
手势状态枚举如下:

复制代码代码如下:

typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, UIGestureRecognizerState) {
  UIGestureRecognizerStatePossible,  // 尚未识别是何种手势操作(但可能已经触发了触摸事件),默认状态
  UIGestureRecognizerStateBegan,   // 手势已经开始,此时已经被识别,但是这个过程中可能发生变化,手势操作尚未完成
  UIGestureRecognizerStateChanged,  // 手势状态发生转变
  UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded,   // 手势识别操作完成(此时已经松开手指)
  UIGestureRecognizerStateCancelled, // 手势被取消,恢复到默认状态
  UIGestureRecognizerStateFailed,   // 手势识别失败,恢复到默认状态
  UIGestureRecognizerStateRecognized = UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded // 手势识别完成,同UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded
};

对于离散型手势 UITapGestureRecgnizer 要么被识别,要么失败,点按(假设点按次数设置为1,并且没有添加长按手势)下去一次不松开则此时什么也不会发生,松开手指立即识别并调用操作事件,并且状态为3(已完成)。
但是连续型手势要复杂一些,就拿旋转手势来说,如果两个手指点下去不做任何操作,此时并不能识别手势(因为我们还没旋转)但是其实已经触发了触摸开始事件,此时处于状态0;如果此时旋转会被识别,也就会调用对应的操作事件,同时状态变成1(手势开始),但是状态1只有一瞬间;紧接着状态变为2(因为我们的旋转需要持续一会),并且重复调用操作事件(如果在事件中打印状态会重复打印2);松开手指,此时状态变为3,并调用1次操作事件。
3、使用手势的步骤
使用手势很简单,分为三步:
创建手势识别器对象实例。创建时,指定一个回调方法,当手势开始,改变、或结束时,执行回调方法。
设置手势识别器对象实例的相关属性(可选部分)
添加到需要识别的 View 中。每个手势只对应一个 View,当屏幕触摸在 View 的边界内时,如果手势和预定的一样,那就会执行回调方法。
PS:一个手势只能对应一个 View,但是一个 View 可以有多个手势。建议在真机上测试这些手势,模拟器操作不太方便,可能导致认为手势失效的情况。(模拟器测试捏合和旋转手势时,按住 option 键,再用触摸板或鼠标操作)
4、举例说明 
功能描述:
附加到两个图片视图 UIImageView 的有『拖动』、『捏合』、『旋转』、『点按』;
而『轻扫』和『自定义手势 KMGestureRecognizer』附加在根视图 UIView 中。
拖动:进行当前图片视图位置移动
捏合:进行当前图片视图缩放
旋转:进行当前图片视图角度旋转
点按:双击恢复当前图片视图的缩放、角度旋转、不透明度
长按:设置当前图片视图的不透明度为0.7
轻扫:左右轻扫设置两个图片视图为居中,同时以垂直居中的特定偏移量定位
自定义手势:挠痒功能,左右扫动共3次或以上,设置两个图片视图为居中,同时以水平居中的特定偏移量定位
效果如下:

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123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401    KMGestureRecognizer.h  #import <UIKit/UIKit.h>   typedef NS_ENUM(NSUInteger, Direction) {  DirectionUnknown,  DirectionLeft,  DirectionRight };   @interface KMGestureRecognizer : UIGestureRecognizer @property (assign, nonatomic) NSUInteger tickleCount; //挠痒次数 @property (assign, nonatomic) CGPoint currentTickleStart; //当前挠痒开始坐标位置 @property (assign, nonatomic) Direction lastDirection; //最后一次挠痒方向   @endKMGestureRecognizer.m  #import "KMGestureRecognizer.h" #import <UIKit/UIGestureRecognizerSubclass.h>   @implementation KMGestureRecognizer #define kMinTickleSpacing 20.0 #define kMaxTickleCount 3   - (void)reset {  _tickleCount = 0;  _currentTickleStart = CGPointZero;  _lastDirection = DirectionUnknown;     if (self.state == UIGestureRecognizerStatePossible) {   self.state = UIGestureRecognizerStateFailed;  } }   - (void)touchesBegan:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {  UITouch *touch = [touches anyObject];  _currentTickleStart = [touch locationInView:self.view]; //设置当前挠痒开始坐标位置 }   - (void)touchesMoved:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {  //『当前挠痒开始坐标位置』和『移动后坐标位置』进行 X 轴值比较,得到是向左还是向右移动  UITouch *touch = [touches anyObject];  CGPoint tickleEnd = [touch locationInView:self.view];  CGFloat tickleSpacing = tickleEnd.x - _currentTickleStart.x;  Direction currentDirection = tickleSpacing < 0 ? DirectionLeft : DirectionRight;     //移动的 X 轴间距值是否符合要求,足够大  if (ABS(tickleSpacing) >= kMinTickleSpacing) {   //判断是否有三次不同方向的动作,如果有则手势结束,将执行回调方法   if (_lastDirection == DirectionUnknown ||    (_lastDirection == DirectionLeft && currentDirection == DirectionRight) ||    (_lastDirection == DirectionRight && currentDirection == DirectionLeft)) {    _tickleCount++;    _currentTickleStart = tickleEnd;    _lastDirection = currentDirection;         if (_tickleCount >= kMaxTickleCount && self.state == UIGestureRecognizerStatePossible) {     self.state = UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded;     //NSLog(@"自定义手势成功,将执行回调方法");    }   }  } }   - (void)touchesEnded:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {  [self reset]; }   - (void)touchesCancelled:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {  [self reset]; }   @end ViewController.h#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>#import "KMGestureRecognizer.h" @interface ViewController : [email protected] (strong, nonatomic) UIImageView *imgV;@property (strong, nonatomic) UIImageView *imgV2;@property (strong, nonatomic) KMGestureRecognizer *customGestureRecognizer; @endViewController.m  #import "ViewController.h"   @interface ViewController () - (void)handlePan:(UIPanGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handlePinch:(UIPinchGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handleRotation:(UIRotationGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handleTap:(UITapGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handleLongPress:(UILongPressGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handleSwipe:(UISwipeGestureRecognizer *)recognizer; - (void)handleCustomGestureRecognizer:(KMGestureRecognizer *)recognizer;   - (void)bindPan:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom; - (void)bindPinch:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom; - (void)bindRotation:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom; - (void)bindTap:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom; - (void)bindLongPress:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom; - (void)bindSwipe; - (void)bingCustomGestureRecognizer; - (void)layoutUI; @end   @implementation ViewController   - (void)viewDidLoad {  [super viewDidLoad];     [self layoutUI]; }   - (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning {  [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];  // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated. }   #pragma mark - 处理手势操作 /** * 处理拖动手势 * * @param recognizer 拖动手势识别器对象实例 */ - (void)handlePan:(UIPanGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {  //视图前置操作  [recognizer.view.superview bringSubviewToFront:recognizer.view];     CGPoint center = recognizer.view.center;  CGFloat cornerRadius = recognizer.view.frame.size.width / 2;  CGPoint translation = [recognizer translationInView:self.view];  //NSLog(@"%@", NSStringFromCGPoint(translation));  recognizer.view.center = CGPointMake(center.x + translation.x, center.y + translation.y);  [recognizer setTranslation:CGPointZero inView:self.view];     if (recognizer.state == UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded) {  //计算速度向量的长度,当他小于200时,滑行会很短  CGPoint velocity = [recognizer velocityInView:self.view];  CGFloat magnitude = sqrtf((velocity.x * velocity.x) + (velocity.y * velocity.y));  CGFloat slideMult = magnitude / 200;  //NSLog(@"magnitude: %f, slideMult: %f", magnitude, slideMult); //e.g. 397.973175, slideMult: 1.989866     //基于速度和速度因素计算一个终点  float slideFactor = 0.1 * slideMult;  CGPoint finalPoint = CGPointMake(center.x + (velocity.x * slideFactor),          center.y + (velocity.y * slideFactor));  //限制最小[cornerRadius]和最大边界值[self.view.bounds.size.width - cornerRadius],以免拖动出屏幕界限  finalPoint.x = MIN(MAX(finalPoint.x, cornerRadius),       self.view.bounds.size.width - cornerRadius);  finalPoint.y = MIN(MAX(finalPoint.y, cornerRadius),       self.view.bounds.size.height - cornerRadius);     //使用 UIView 动画使 view 滑行到终点  [UIView animateWithDuration:slideFactor*2       delay:0       options:UIViewAnimationOptionCurveEaseOut      animations:^{       recognizer.view.center = finalPoint;      }      completion:nil]; }} /*** 处理捏合手势** @param recognizer 捏合手势识别器对象实例*/- (void)handlePinch:(UIPinchGestureRecognizer *)recognizer { CGFloat scale = recognizer.scale; recognizer.view.transform = CGAffineTransformScale(recognizer.view.transform, scale, scale); //在已缩放大小基础下进行累加变化;区别于:使用 CGAffineTransformMakeScale 方法就是在原大小基础下进行变化 recognizer.scale = 1.0;} /*** 处理旋转手势** @param recognizer 旋转手势识别器对象实例*/- (void)handleRotation:(UIRotationGestureRecognizer *)recognizer { recognizer.view.transform = CGAffineTransformRotate(recognizer.view.transform, recognizer.rotation); recognizer.rotation = 0.0; }   /** * 处理点按手势 * * @param recognizer 点按手势识别器对象实例 */ - (void)handleTap:(UITapGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {  UIView *view = recognizer.view;  view.transform = CGAffineTransformMakeScale(1.0, 1.0);  view.transform = CGAffineTransformMakeRotation(0.0);  view.alpha = 1.0; }   /** * 处理长按手势 * * @param recognizer 点按手势识别器对象实例 */ - (void)handleLongPress:(UILongPressGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {  //长按的时候,设置不透明度为0.7  recognizer.view.alpha = 0.7; }   /** * 处理轻扫手势 * * @param recognizer 轻扫手势识别器对象实例 */ - (void)handleSwipe:(UISwipeGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {  //代码块方式封装操作方法  void (^positionOperation)() = ^() {   CGPoint newPoint = recognizer.view.center;   newPoint.y -= 20.0;   _imgV.center = newPoint;       newPoint.y += 40.0;   _imgV2.center = newPoint;  };     //根据轻扫方向,进行不同控制  switch (recognizer.direction) {   case UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionRight: {    positionOperation();    break;   }   case UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionLeft: {    positionOperation();    break;   }   case UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionUp: {    break;   }   case UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionDown: {    break;   }  } }   /** * 处理自定义手势 * * @param recognizer 自定义手势识别器对象实例 */ - (void)handleCustomGestureRecognizer:(KMGestureRecognizer *)recognizer {  //代码块方式封装操作方法  void (^positionOperation)() = ^() {   CGPoint newPoint = recognizer.view.center;   newPoint.x -= 20.0;   _imgV.center = newPoint;       newPoint.x += 40.0;   _imgV2.center = newPoint;  };     positionOperation(); }     #pragma mark - 绑定手势操作 /** * 绑定拖动手势 * * @param imgVCustom 绑定到图片视图对象实例 */ - (void)bindPan:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom {  UIPanGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UIPanGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                     action:@selector(handlePan:)];  [imgVCustom addGestureRecognizer:recognizer]; }   /** * 绑定捏合手势 * * @param imgVCustom 绑定到图片视图对象实例 */ - (void)bindPinch:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom {  UIPinchGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UIPinchGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                      action:@selector(handlePinch:)];  [imgVCustom addGestureRecognizer:recognizer];  //[recognizer requireGestureRecognizerToFail:imgVCustom.gestureRecognizers.firstObject]; }   /** * 绑定旋转手势 * * @param imgVCustom 绑定到图片视图对象实例 */ - (void)bindRotation:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom {  UIRotationGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UIRotationGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                       action:@selector(handleRotation:)];  [imgVCustom addGestureRecognizer:recognizer]; }   /** * 绑定点按手势 * * @param imgVCustom 绑定到图片视图对象实例 */ - (void)bindTap:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom {  UITapGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UITapGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                     action:@selector(handleTap:)];  //使用一根手指双击时,才触发点按手势识别器  recognizer.numberOfTapsRequired = 2;  recognizer.numberOfTouchesRequired = 1;  [imgVCustom addGestureRecognizer:recognizer]; }   /** * 绑定长按手势 * * @param imgVCustom 绑定到图片视图对象实例 */ - (void)bindLongPress:(UIImageView *)imgVCustom {  UILongPressGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UILongPressGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self action:@selector(handleLongPress:)];  recognizer.minimumPressDuration = 0.5; //设置最小长按时间;默认为0.5秒  [imgVCustom addGestureRecognizer:recognizer]; }   /** * 绑定轻扫手势;支持四个方向的轻扫,但是不同的方向要分别定义轻扫手势 */ - (void)bindSwipe {  //向右轻扫手势  UISwipeGestureRecognizer *recognizer = [[UISwipeGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                      action:@selector(handleSwipe:)];  recognizer.direction = UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionRight; //设置轻扫方向;默认是 UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionRight,即向右轻扫  [self.view addGestureRecognizer:recognizer];  [recognizer requireGestureRecognizerToFail:_customGestureRecognizer]; //设置以自定义挠痒手势优先识别     //向左轻扫手势  recognizer = [[UISwipeGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self               action:@selector(handleSwipe:)];  recognizer.direction = UISwipeGestureRecognizerDirectionLeft;  [self.view addGestureRecognizer:recognizer];  [recognizer requireGestureRecognizerToFail:_customGestureRecognizer]; //设置以自定义挠痒手势优先识别 }   /** * 绑定自定义挠痒手势;判断是否有三次不同方向的动作,如果有则手势结束,将执行回调方法 */ - (void)bingCustomGestureRecognizer {  //当 recognizer.state 为 UIGestureRecognizerStateEnded 时,才执行回调方法 handleCustomGestureRecognizer:     //_customGestureRecognizer = [KMGestureRecognizer new];  _customGestureRecognizer = [[KMGestureRecognizer alloc] initWithTarget:self                  action:@selector(handleCustomGestureRecognizer:)];  [self.view addGestureRecognizer:_customGestureRecognizer]; }   - (void)layoutUI {  //图片视图 _imgV  UIImage *img = [UIImage imageNamed:@"Emoticon_tusiji_icon"];  CGFloat cornerRadius = img.size.width;  _imgV = [[UIImageView alloc] initWithImage:img];  _imgV.frame = CGRectMake(20.0, 20.0,        cornerRadius * 2, cornerRadius * 2);  _imgV.userInteractionEnabled = YES;  _imgV.layer.masksToBounds = YES;  _imgV.layer.cornerRadius = cornerRadius;  _imgV.layer.borderWidth = 2.0;  _imgV.layer.borderColor = [UIColor grayColor].CGColor;  [self.view addSubview:_imgV];     //图片视图 _imgV2  img = [UIImage imageNamed:@"Emoticon_tusiji_icon2"];  cornerRadius = img.size.width;  _imgV2 = [[UIImageView alloc] initWithImage:img];  _imgV2.frame = CGRectMake(20.0, 40.0 + _imgV.frame.size.height,        cornerRadius * 2, cornerRadius * 2);  _imgV2.userInteractionEnabled = YES;  _imgV2.layer.masksToBounds = YES;  _imgV2.layer.cornerRadius = cornerRadius;  _imgV2.layer.borderWidth = 2.0;  _imgV2.layer.borderColor = [UIColor orangeColor].CGColor;  [self.view addSubview:_imgV2];        [self bindPan:_imgV];  [self bindPinch:_imgV];  [self bindRotation:_imgV];  [self bindTap:_imgV];  [self bindLongPress:_imgV];     [self bindPan:_imgV2];  [self bindPinch:_imgV2];  [self bindRotation:_imgV2];  [self bindTap:_imgV2];  [self bindLongPress:_imgV2];     //为了处理手势识别优先级的问题,这里需先绑定自定义挠痒手势  [self bingCustomGestureRecognizer];  [self bindSwipe]; }   @end    
以上代码就是关于IOS手势操作(拖动、捏合、旋转、点按、长按、轻扫、自定义)的详解,希望对大家有所帮助。


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