在Linux中使用Smartctl监控磁盘性能的方法

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在Linux中使用Smartctl监控磁盘性能的方法

来源: 作者: 时间:2015-12-21 18:39 【

这篇文章主要介绍了在Linux中使用Smartctl监控磁盘性能的方法,特别对于服务器来说,磁盘的健康度信息非常重要,需要的朋友可以参考下
这篇文章主要介绍了在Linux中使用Smartctl监控磁盘性能的方法,特别对于服务器来说,磁盘的健康度信息非常重要,需要的朋友可以参考下

Smartctl(S.M.A.R.T 自监控,分析和报告技术)是类Unix系统下实施SMART任务命令行套件或工具,它用于打印SMART自检和错误日志,启用并禁用SMRAT自动检测,以及初始化设备自检。

Smartctl对于Linux物理服务器十分有用,在这些服务器上,可以对智能磁盘进行错误检查,并将与硬件RAID相关的磁盘信息摘录下来。

在本帖中,我们将讨论smartctl命令的一些实用样例。如果你的Linux上海没有安装smartctl,请按以下步骤来安装。
安装 Smartctl

对于 Ubuntu

   

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代码如下:
$ sudo apt-get install smartmontools

对于 CentOS & RHEL

   

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代码如下:
# yum install smartmontools

启动Smartctl服务

对于 Ubuntu

   

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代码如下:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

对于 CentOS & RHEL

   

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代码如下:
# service smartd start ; chkconfig smartd on

样例
样例:1 检查磁盘的 Smart 功能是否启用

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -i /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family: Seagate Momentus 5400.6
Device Model: ST9320325AS
Serial Number: 5VD2V59T
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 020a37ec4
Firmware Version: 0002BSM1
User Capacity: 320,072,933,376 bytes [320 GB]
Sector Size: 512 bytes logical/physical
Rotation Rate: 5400 rpm
Device is: In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is: ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
SATA Version is: SATA 2.6, 1.5 Gb/s
Local Time is: Sun Nov 16 12:32:09 2014 IST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

这里‘/dev/sdb’是你的硬盘。上面输出中的最后两行显示了SMART功能已启用。
样例:2 启用磁盘的 Smart 功能

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -s on /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
SMART Enabled.

样例:3 禁用磁盘的 Smart 功能

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -s off /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
SMART Disabled. Use option -s with argument 'on' to enable it.

样例:4 显示磁盘的详细 Smart 信息

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -a /dev/sdb // For IDE drive
[email protected]:~# smartctl -a -d ata /dev/sdb // For SATA drive

样例:5 显示磁盘总体健康状况

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -H /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED
Warning: This result is based on an Attribute check.
Please note the following marginal Attributes:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME FLAG VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE UPDATED WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022 067 045 045 Old_age Always In_the_past 33 (Min/Max 25/33)

样例:6 使用long和short选项测试硬盘

Long测试

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".
Drive command "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.
Testing has begun.
Please wait 102 minutes for test to complete.
Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 14:29:43 2014

Use smartctl -X to abort test.

或者,我们可以重定向测试输出到日志文件,就像下面这样

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb > /var/log/long.text

Short测试

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".
Drive command "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.
Testing has begun.
Please wait 1 minutes for test to complete.
Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 12:51:45 2014

    
    Use smartctl -X to abort test.

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb > /var/log/short.text

注意:short测试将花费最多2分钟,而在long测试中没有时间限制,因为它会读取并验证磁盘的每个段。
样例:7 查看驱动器的自检结果

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -l selftest /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num Test_Description Status Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error
# 1 Short offline Completed: read failure 90% 492 210841222
# 2 Extended offline Completed: read failure 90% 492 210841222

样例:8 计算测试时间估值

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -c /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status: (0x00) Offline data collection activity
was never started.
Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status: ( 121) The previous self-test completed having
the read element of the test failed.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection: ( 0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: (0x73) SMART execute Offline immediate.
Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
Suspend Offline collection upon new
command.
No Offline surface scan supported.
Self-test supported.
Conveyance Self-test supported.
Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities: (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
power-saving mode.
Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability: (0x01) Error logging supported.
General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time: ( 1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: ( 102) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time: ( 2) minutes.
SCT capabilities: (0x103b) SCT Status supported.
SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
SCT Feature Control supported.
SCT Data Table supported.

样例:9 显示磁盘错误日志

   

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代码如下:
[email protected]:~# smartctl -l error /dev/sdb

Sample Output

smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Error Log Version: 1
ATA Error Count: 5
CR = Command Register [HEX]
FR = Features Register [HEX]
SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]
SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]
CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]
CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]
DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]
DC = Device Command Register [HEX]
ER = Error register [HEX]
ST = Status register [HEX]
Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as
DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,
SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.

Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC Powered_Up_Time Command/Feature_Name
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---------------- --------------------
25 da 08 e7 e5 a5 4c 00 00:30:44.515 READ DMA EXT
25 da 08 df e5 a5 4c 00 00:30:44.514 READ DMA EXT
25 da 80 5f e5 a5 4c 00 00:30:44.502 READ DMA EXT
25 da f0 5f e6 a5 4c 00 00:30:44.496 READ DMA EXT
25 da 10 4f e6 a5 4c 00 00:30:44.383 READ DMA EXT

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