说明:这里是在win7下安装的,新版本的mysql安装与之前有不同。
1、mysql-5.5.20-win32.zip,解压到D:\dev,D盘的dev文件夹下就会出现mysql-5.5.20-win32目录,将其重命名为mysql。

2、配置MYSQL的环境变量
新增系统变量MYSQL_HOME: D:\dev\mysql
在PATH变量的最后面添加: ;%MYSQL_HOME%\bin
保存即可。

3、打开文件my-default.ini另存为my.ini,删除my.ini中的所有配置,在my.ini文件中加入如下简单配置:(my.ini是保存在与my-default.ini同一个目录下的)(#表示注释)
Mysql代码 收藏代码
# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients
[client]
#password = your_password
port = 3306

[mysql]
#设置mysql客户端的字符集
default-character-set = utf8

# The MySQL server
[mysqld]
port = 3306
#设置mysql的安装目录
basedir = D:\dev\mysql
#设置mysql的数据存放目录,必须是data或者\xxx-data
datadir = D:\dev\\data
#设置服务器段的字符集
character_set_server = utf8

4、注册服务

开始菜单,搜索cmd,单击右键“以管理员身份运行”,输入命令:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysqld --install mysql --defaults-file=d:\dev\mysql\my.ini

(如果此时“出现Install/Remove of the Service Denied!”的错误,说明cmd不是以管理员身份运行

或着,

开始菜单,搜索cmd,单击右键“以管理员身份运行”,输入命令:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysqld --install mysql

在“服务”中就会出现mysql这一项。 )

5、启动服务(开始菜单,搜索cmd,单击右键“以管理员身份运行”):

Mysql代码 收藏代码
net start mysql

(如果此时启动有问题,如1067错误,一般是你的my.ini文件有问题,你检查一下看看,如果确认没有问题,或者你更改过,那执行以下步骤:

%mysqlhome%\bin>mysqld-nt --remove

Service successfully removed.

然后重新执行步骤4

停止服务:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
net stop mysql

6、服务启动后:

登录MySQL服务器:

命令格式:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql -h hostname -u username -p

(这里-h不要也可以,有可能出现can't connect to MySQL server on 'localhost'错误,这个需要修改windows的hosts文件,加上127.0.0.1 localhost)

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql -hhostname -uusername -p

命令说明:mysql命令将调用MySQL监视程序,这是一个可以将我们连接到MySQL服务器端的客户端命令行工具。

选项说明:

-h选项:用于指定所希望连接的主机,即运行MySQL服务器的机器。如果在运行MySQL服务器的机器上运行该命令,则可以忽略该选项和hostname参数;如果不是,必须用运行MySQL服务器的主机名称来代替主机名称参数。

-u命令:用于指定连接数据库时使用的用户名称。

-p命令:用于指定用户输入的密码

此时我本机安装了MYSQL,可忽略该选项和hostname参数:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql -uroot -p

注:

MySQL的管理员用户名为root,密码默认为空 ,所以要你输密码时候直接回车即可

修改root密码

MySQL配置好后,启动成功,默认密码是空,但是为了安全,设置密码(MySQL有一个默认用户名为root,密码自己设定:假如设为root)。

1)登录MySQL root用户:

打开命令行,执行:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql -uroot -p

2)修改root密码:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> update mysql.user set password="root" where User="root";
mysql> flush privileges;

修改该修改密码的语句:update mysql.user set password="root" where User="root";

为: update mysql.user set password=password("root") where User="root";

详细说明:见最底下的补充说明。

以后再进入MySQL,则为:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql -uroot -proot

7、常用命令:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
create database new_dbname;--新建数据库
show databases;--显示数据库
use databasename;--使用数据库
select database();--查看已选择的数据库

show tables;--显示当前库的所有表
create table tablename(fieldname1 fieldtype1,fieldname2 fieldtype2,..)[ENGINE=engine_name];--创建表
create table tablename select statement;--通过子查询创建表
desc tablename;--查看表结构
show create table tablename;--查看建表语句

alter table tablename add new_fielname new_fieldtype;--新增列
alter table tablename add new_fielname new_fieldtype after 列名1;--在列名1后新增列
alter table tablename modify fieldname new_fieldtype;--修改列
alter table tablename drop fieldname;--删除列
alter table tablename_old rename tablename_new;--表重命名

insert into tablename(fieldname1,fieldname2,fieldnamen) valuse(value1,value2,valuen);--增
delete from tablename [where fieldname=value];--删
update tablename set fieldname1=new_value where filename2=value;--改
select * from tablename [where filename=value];--查

truncate table tablename;--清空表中所有数据,DDL语句

show engines;--查看mysql现在已提供的存储引擎:
show variables like '%storage_engine%';--查看mysql当前默认的存储引擎
show create table tablename;--查看某张表用的存储引擎(结果的"ENGINE="部分)
alter table tablename ENGINE=InnoDB--修改引擎
create table tablename(fieldname1 fieldtype1,fieldname2 fieldtype2,..) ENGINE=engine_name;--创建表时设置存储引擎

8、例如:

(1)登录MySQL服务器后,查看当前时间,登录的用户以及数据库的版本

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> select now(),user(),version();
+---------------------+----------------+-----------+
| now() | user() | version() |
+---------------------+----------------+-----------+
| 2012-02-26 20:29:51 | [email protected] | 5.5.20 |
+---------------------+----------------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(2)显示数据库列表

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.03 sec)

(3)新增数据库并查看

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> create database test_db;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
| test_db |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

(4)选择数据库

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> use test_db;
Database changed

查看已选择的数据库:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> select database();
+------------+
| database() |
+------------+
| test_db |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(5)显示当前数据库的所有数据表

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

(6)新建数据表并查看

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> create table person(
-> id int,
-> name varchar(20),
-> sex char(1),
-> birth date
-> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec) Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_test_db |
+-------------------+
| person |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(7)获取表结构

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> desc person;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

或者

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> describe person;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(1) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(8)查询表中的数据

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> select * from person;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

(9)插入数据

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> insert into person(id,name,sex,birth)
-> values(1,'zhangsan','1','1990-01-08');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)

查询表中的数据:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> select * from person;
+------+----------+------+------------+
| id | name | sex | birth |
+------+----------+------+------------+
| 1 | zhangsan | 1 | 1990-01-08 |
+------+----------+------+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(10)修改字段的类型

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> alter table person modify sex char(8);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.17 sec)
Records: 1 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

查看字段描述:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> desc person;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(8) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(11)新增一个字段

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> alter table person add(address varchar(50));
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.27 sec)
Records: 1 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

查看字段描述:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> desc person;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(8) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
| address | varchar(50) | YES | | NULL | |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(12)更新字段内容

查看修改前表的内容:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> select * from person;
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| id | name | sex | birth | address |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| 1 | zhangsan | 1 | 1990-01-08 | NULL |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

修改:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> update person set name='lisi' where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)
Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from person;
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
| id | name | sex | birth | address |
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
| 1 | lisi | 1 | 1990-01-08 | NULL |
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> update person set sex='man',address='China' where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)
Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from person;
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
| id | name | sex | birth | address |
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
| 1 | lisi | man | 1990-01-08 | China |
+------+------+------+------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

为了方便下面测试删除数据,在向person表中插入2条数据:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> insert into person(id,name,sex,birth,address)
-> values(2,'wangwu','man','1990-01-10','China');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> insert into person(id,name,sex,birth,address)
-> values(3,'zhangsan','man','1990-01-10','China');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> select * from person;
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| id | name | sex | birth | address |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| 1 | lisi | man | 1990-01-08 | China |
| 2 | wangwu | man | 1990-01-10 | China |
| 3 | zhangsan | man | 1990-01-10 | China |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

(13)删除表中的数据

删除表中指定的数据:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> delete from person where id=2;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> select * from person;
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| id | name | sex | birth | address |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
| 1 | lisi | man | 1990-01-08 | China |
| 3 | zhangsan | man | 1990-01-10 | China |
+------+----------+------+------------+---------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

删除表中全部的数据:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> delete from person;
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> select * from person;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

(14)重命名表

查看重命名前的表名:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_test_db |
+-------------------+
| person |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

重命名:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> alter table person rename person_test;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_test_db |
+-------------------+
| person_test |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(15)新增主键

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> alter table person_test add primary key(id);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
Records: 0 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

mysql> desc person_test;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | NO | PRI | 0 | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(8) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
| address | varchar(50) | YES | | NULL | |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

删除主键:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> alter table person_test drop primary key;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.18 sec)
Records: 0 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

mysql> desc person_test;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | NO | | 0 | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | char(8) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
| address | varchar(50) | YES | | NULL | |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(16)删除表

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> drop table person_test;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

(17)删除数据库

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
| test_db |
+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> drop database test_db;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

(18)查看建表语句

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> show create table table_name;

补充说明:

update mysql.user set password="root" where User="root";修改的不是密码,如果按照这个方式修改了,重新登录时将会报错:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
mysql> update mysql.user set password="root" where User="root";
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 3 Changed: 3 Warnings: 0

mysql> exit
Bye

C:\Users\liqiong>mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: ****
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: Y
ES)

请按照以下方式重新修改密码,即可登录成功:

Mysql代码 收藏代码
C:\Users\liqiong>mysql -uroot
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.5.20 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> update mysql.user set password=password("root") where User="root";
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 3 Changed: 3 Warnings: 0

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
Bye

C:\Users\liqiong>mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: ****
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 5.5.20 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>