mysql toolkit 是一个小插件,用于对数据库进行监控,分析的小工具, 通常都是调用 perl 对当前的环境,数据库进行分析,比对,值得学习一下。

地址
http://www.percona.com/redir/downloads/percona-toolkit/LATEST/RPM/percona-toolkit-2.2.5-2.noarch.rpm

安装时可能需要补充下面软件

yum install -y perl-DBD-mysql perl-IO-Socket-SSL
rpm -ivh percona-toolkit-2.2.5-2.noarch.rpm


命令列表

/usr/bin/pt-agent
/usr/bin/pt-align
/usr/bin/pt-archiver
/usr/bin/pt-config-diff
/usr/bin/pt-deadlock-logger
/usr/bin/pt-diskstats
/usr/bin/pt-duplicate-key-checker
/usr/bin/pt-fifo-split
/usr/bin/pt-find
/usr/bin/pt-fingerprint
/usr/bin/pt-fk-error-logger
/usr/bin/pt-heartbeat
/usr/bin/pt-index-usage
/usr/bin/pt-ioprofile
/usr/bin/pt-kill
/usr/bin/pt-mext
/usr/bin/pt-mysql-summary
/usr/bin/pt-online-schema-change
/usr/bin/pt-pmp
/usr/bin/pt-query-digest
/usr/bin/pt-show-grants
/usr/bin/pt-sift
/usr/bin/pt-slave-delay
/usr/bin/pt-slave-find
/usr/bin/pt-slave-restart
/usr/bin/pt-stalk
/usr/bin/pt-summary
/usr/bin/pt-table-checksum
/usr/bin/pt-table-sync
/usr/bin/pt-table-usage
/usr/bin/pt-upgrade
/usr/bin/pt-variable-advisor
/usr/bin/pt-visual-explain



语法及作用 (颜色红色表示需关注,蓝色表示作用不大)

/usr/bin/pt-align
用于对文件进行格式化输出

如文件 t 内容如下

[root@db2 aaa]# cat t
a abc   aaa  123d2 5 d2wf wwwxcc
a233 ddcqq 55  23ds2  55aaa 5tty655 ccqqq

格式化后输出如下

[root@db2 aaa]# /usr/bin/pt-align t
a    abc   aaa 123d2 5     d2wf    wwwxcc
a233 ddcqq  55 23ds2 55aaa 5tty655 ccqqq



/usr/bin/pt-archiver
把一个库中的表复制到另外一个服务器中

下面例子把 192.168.200.163 中 dbd.t1 复制至 192.168.200.171 中

[root@db2 ~]# /usr/bin/pt-archiver --source h=192.168.200.163,D=dbd,t=t1,u=terry,p=123 --dest h=192.168.200.171,D=dbd,t=t1,u=terry,p=123 --where "1=1"

注,必须在 source 中为表创建索引,否则报下面错误信息
Cannot find an ascendable index in table at /usr/bin/pt-archiver line 3175.

/usr/bin/pt-config-diff
用于显示两台中配置文件不一样的地方

[root@db2 ~]# /usr/bin/pt-config-diff h=192.168.200.163 h=192.168.200.171 --user=root --password=123
5 config differences
Variable                  db2.mytest.com          db4
========================= ======================= ============
general_log_file          db2.log                 db4.log
hostname                  db2.mytest.com          db4
log_error                 /mdb/db2.mytest.com.err /mdb/db4.err
slow_query_log_file       db2-slow.log            db4-slow.log
wsrep_node_name           db2.mytest.com          db4


/usr/bin/pt-deadlock-logger
能够长期记录死锁信息到另外一个表中, 创建表格式如下

            CREATE TABLE monitor.deadlocks (
              server char(20) NOT NULL,
              ts datetime NOT NULL,
              thread int unsigned NOT NULL,
              txn_id bigint unsigned NOT NULL,
              txn_time smallint unsigned NOT NULL,
              user char(16) NOT NULL,
              hostname char(20) NOT NULL,
              ip char(15) NOT NULL, -- alternatively, ip int unsigned NOT NULL
              db char(64) NOT NULL,
              tbl char(64) NOT NULL,
              idx char(64) NOT NULL,
              lock_type char(16) NOT NULL,
              lock_mode char(1) NOT NULL,
              wait_hold char(1) NOT NULL,
              victim tinyint unsigned NOT NULL,
              query text NOT NULL,
              PRIMARY KEY  (server,ts,thread)
            ) ENGINE=InnoDB

语法

pt-deadlock-logger h=10.1.1.29 --dest h=10.1.1.29,D=monitor,t=deadlocks --user=terry --ask-pass


注: 当前需安装 perl-Term-ReadKey 应用才能够支持密码输入
用户 terry 除授权对 daedlocks 表具备写操作还需要具备 process 权限

参考发生死锁时候的信息:

mysql> select * from monitor.deadlocks \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
   server: 10.1.1.29
       ts: 2013-12-16 03:41:05
   thread: 24473
   txn_id: 0
 txn_time: 5
     user: mini189
 hostname:
       ip: 10.1.1.25
       db: 189mini
      tbl: index_species_situaction
      idx: GEN_CLUST_INDEX
lock_type: RECORD
lock_mode: X
wait_hold: w
   victim: 0
    query: update index_species_situaction s set s.new_version= '13121603410024300001' where s.new_version != 'DELETE' and s.species_id ='W6021601'
*************************** 2. row ***************************
   server: 10.1.1.29
       ts: 2013-12-16 03:41:05
   thread: 25270
   txn_id: 0
 txn_time: 5
     user: mini189
 hostname:
       ip: 10.1.1.25
       db: 189mini
      tbl: index_species_situaction
      idx: GEN_CLUST_INDEX
lock_type: RECORD
lock_mode: X
wait_hold: w
   victim: 1
    query: update INDEX_SPECIES_SITUACTION h set h.new_version='DELETE' where h.specification_id = NAME_CONST('_specification_id',_utf8'S5F60811' COLLATE 'utf8_general_ci') and h.species_id= NAME_CONST('_species_id',_utf8'W6045FF3' COLLATE 'utf8_general_ci')
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


/usr/bin/pt-diskstats
调用 /proc/diskstats 文件用于监控磁盘io
直接执行命令则返回下面信息

 
/usr/bin/pt-diskstats
  #ts device    rd_s rd_avkb rd_mb_s rd_mrg rd_cnc   rd_rt    wr_s wr_avkb wr_mb_s wr_mrg wr_cnc   wr_rt busy in_prg    io_s  qtime stime
  1.0 sda        0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     7.0     8.0     0.1    50%    0.1     8.6   4%      0     7.0    5.7   2.9
  1.0 sda2       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     7.0     8.0     0.1    50%    0.1     8.6   4%      0     7.0    5.7   2.9
  1.0 dm-0       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 dm-2       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     4.0     4.0     0.0     0%    0.1    20.0   3%      0     4.0   11.2   8.8
  1.0 dm-3       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0    10.0     4.0     0.0     0%    0.2    19.0   4%      0    10.0   14.9   4.1
  1.0 dm-4       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 dm-6       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 drbd0      0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0

  1.0 sda        0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     4.0     6.0     0.0    33%    0.0     5.3   3%      0     4.0    0.0   5.3
  1.0 sda2       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     4.0     6.0     0.0    33%    0.0     5.3   3%      0     4.0    0.0   5.3
  1.0 dm-0       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     3.0     4.0     0.0     0%    0.0     7.3   1%      0     3.0    2.7   4.7
  1.0 dm-2       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 dm-3       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 dm-4       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0
  1.0 dm-6       0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     3.0     4.0     0.0     0%    0.0    10.0   2%      0     3.0    4.0   6.0
  1.0 drbd0      0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0%    0.0     0.0   0%      0     0.0    0.0   0.0



/usr/bin/pt-duplicate-key-checker
能够快速校验某个数据库或表具有多少个索引

[root@mini189a ~]# pt-duplicate-key-checker h=10.1.1.29 --database=189mini --user=terry --password=terry123
# ########################################################################
# Summary of indexes
# ########################################################################

# Total Indexes  262


/usr/bin/pt-find
类似 linux 下 find 功能,能够根据需要对数据库中表进行过滤,搜索

查询表大小

[root@mini189a ~]#  pt-find  --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket --user=terry --password=terry123 --tablesize +1M
`189mini`.`pre_ware_broswers`
`189mini`.`system_regions`
`crazy`.`sys_log_bs`


最近 3 天内创建的表

[root@mini189a ~]#  pt-find  --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket --user=terry --password=terry123 --ctime -3
`monitor`.`deadlocks`
`xszl`.`appreleasetable`
`xszl`.`bulletintable`
`xszl`.`companytable`


最近 35 分钟内修改过的表

[root@mini189a ~]#  pt-find  --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket --user=terry --password=terry123 --mmin -35
`mysql`.`db`
`mysql`.`user`


数据库中空的表

[root@mini189a ~]# pt-find  --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket --user=terry --password=terry123  --empty
`189mini`.`ware_tag_assign`
`189mini`.`ware_tag_content`
`monitor`.`deadlocks`
`mysql`.`columns_priv`
`mysql`.`event`



/usr/bin/pt-fk-error-logger
用于检测外键报错信息, 需创建下面相关表进行数据存储

CREATE TABLE foreign_key_errors (
 ts datetime NOT NULL,
 error text NOT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (ts)
)


语法测试

pt-fk-error-logger h=10.1.1.29 --dest h=10.1.1.29,D=monitor,t=foreign_key_errors --user=terry --ask-pass


注: 用户 terry 除授权对 foreign_key_errors 表具备写操作还需要具备 process 权限

参考下面返回信息

MariaDB [terry]> select * from monitor.foreign_key_errors \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
   ts: 2013-12-20 10:32:42
error: Transaction:
TRANSACTION 2F1D0, ACTIVE 0 sec inserting
mysql tables in use 1, locked 1
3 lock struct(s), heap size 376, 1 row lock(s), undo log entries 1
MySQL thread id 1329, OS thread handle 0x7fe89805a700, query id 7612 localhost root update
insert into t4 values (5, 'aaaaa')
Foreign key constraint fails for table `terry`.`t4`:
,
  CONSTRAINT `t4_ibfk_1` FOREIGN KEY (`id`) REFERENCES `t3` (`id`)
Trying to add in child table, in index `id` tuple:
DATA TUPLE: 2 fields;
 0: len 4; hex 80000005; asc     ;;
 1: len 6; hex 0000000007e9; asc       ;;

But in parent table `terry`.`t3`, in index `PRIMARY`,
the closest match we can find is record:
PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 4; compact format; info bits 0
 0: len 4; hex 80000004; asc     ;;
 1: len 6; hex 00000002f1cd; asc       ;;
 2: len 7; hex f4000001a90134; asc       4;;
 3: len 1; hex 64; asc d;;

1 row in set (0.00 sec)



/usr/bin/pt-heartbeat
用于监控 ab 复制延时信息,需创建下面表用于信息存储

             CREATE TABLE heartbeat (
               ts                    varchar(26) NOT NULL,
               server_id             int unsigned NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
               file                  varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,    -- SHOW MASTER STATUS
               position              bigint unsigned DEFAULT NULL, -- SHOW MASTER STATUS
               relay_master_log_file varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,    -- SHOW SLAVE STATUS
               exec_master_log_pos   bigint unsigned DEFAULT NULL  -- SHOW SLAVE STATUS
             );


/usr/bin/pt-index-usage
根据日志分析查询过程中是否使用到索引

/usr/bin/pt-ioprofile
分析并打印最近活跃的 IO 与相关进程信息 (只针对 mysql 进程)

[root@mini189a ~]# pt-ioprofile
2013年 12月 20日 星期五 11:27:52 CST
Tracing process ID 44802
     total       read     pwrite      write      fsync       open      close   getdents      lseek  ftruncate filename
  0.190553   0.000000   0.000903   0.000000   0.189650   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000 /data/ibdata1
  0.107560   0.000000   0.000297   0.000000   0.107263   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000 /data/ib_logfile0
  0.027070   0.000000   0.000000   0.027070   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000 /var/log/mysqld/mysql5-access.log
  0.015691   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000689   0.000480   0.014522   0.000000   0.000000 /data/189mini/
  0.000362   0.000058   0.000000   0.000159   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000081   0.000064 /tmp/ib4I3wV6
  0.000192   0.000000   0.000000   0.000192   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000 /data/mysql5.000097
  0.000030   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000000   0.000030   0.000000 /tmp/ibiybk6Q



/usr/bin/pt-kill
用于 kill 某些指定的 SQL 查询


/usr/bin/pt-mext
用于记录固定时间间隔内 status 返回值的变化 (下面例子将会计算 10 秒内的变化)

pt-mext -r -- mysqladmin -p'password' --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket  ext -i10 -c2  | awk '{ if ($3 !~0) print $0}'
Com_select                             19446417         198
Com_show_status                              11           1
Created_tmp_tables                      1015031           1
Handler_commit                         20829923         198
Handler_read_first                     21935275         198
Handler_read_key                       83253660         198
Handler_read_rnd_next               25490412028      257632
Handler_write                          63925147         294
Innodb_buffer_pool_read_requests    25739644905      259716
Innodb_rows_read                    25421266296      257116
Qcache_not_cached                      18701233         198
Queries                                28860341         199
Questions                              22720514         199
Select_scan                            19915354         199
Table_locks_immediate                  21238032         19


/usr/bin/pt-mysql-summary
给当前数据库进行一些数据统计,不一一对统计进行讨论
注: 执行该命令时,需要调用 mysqldump, 需具备 mysqldump 命令执行路径

pt-mysql-summary --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket  --password='password'

  Database            Tables Views SPs Trigs Funcs   FKs Partn
  189mini                266    10
  crazy                   14
  login                    1
  monitor                  1
  mysql                   24
  #mysql50#lost+found
  openne                  18
  test
  xszl                    29                          60

  Database            InnoDB MyISAM CSV
  189mini                266     10
  crazy                   14
  login                    1
  monitor                  1
  mysql                          22   2
  #mysql50#lost+found
  openne                  18
  test
  xszl                    29

  Database            BTREE
  189mini               280
  crazy                  14
  login                   1
  monitor                 1
  mysql                  31
  #mysql50#lost+found
  openne                 25
  test
  xszl                  149


/usr/bin/pt-online-schema-change
允许在不锁定表条件下修改表


/usr/bin/pt-query-digest
从日志中进行 SQL 分析


/usr/bin/pt-show-grants
必须要以管理员身份登录,能够把数据库之前授权信息进行打印

pt-show-grants -p'mini189!QAZ'  --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysql5.socket
-- Grants dumped by pt-show-grants
-- Dumped from server Localhost via UNIX socket, MySQL 5.5.34-debug-log at 2013-12-20 14:43:22
-- Grants for 'crazy'@'10.1.1.%'
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'crazy'@'10.1.1.%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*4C1B9FACE717B2947CB8D52B32C3CFE8DA8DD8CB';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `crazy`.* TO 'crazy'@'10.1.1.%';
-- Grants for 'mini145'@'%'
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'mini145'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*AA2442B2AE9D3C29F895E57F366092819A3F6738';
-- Grants for 'mini145'@'10.1.1.%'
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'mini145'@'10.1.1.%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*AA2442B2AE9D3C29F895E57F366092819A3F6738';
-- Grants for 'minibackup'@'10.1.1.%'
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE, SUPER ON *.* TO 'minibackup'@'10.1.1.%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*D5A75D5F1208A6763F64193744F94E57373C128E';



/usr/bin/pt-slave-delay
令从服务器延时复制

/usr/bin/pt-slave-find
校验 mysql 从服务器信息

/usr/bin/pt-slave-restart
监控并重启从服务器

/usr/bin/pt-summary
统计计算机信息,如内存,CPU,网卡,分区,文件节点,IP地址,网线连接状态,端口连接情况,网络连接状态

/usr/bin/pt-summary
# Percona Toolkit System Summary Report ######################
        Date | 2013-12-20 07:03:47 UTC (local TZ: CST +0800)
    Hostname | mini189a
      Uptime | 42 days, 15:11,  2 users,  load average: 0.49, 0.47, 0.39
      System | HP; ProLiant DL380p Gen8; vNot Specified (Rack Mount Chassis)
 Service Tag | 6CU304ZN
    Platform | Linux
     Release | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.3 (Santiago)
      Kernel | 2.6.32-358.23.2.el6.centos.plus.x86_64
Architecture | CPU = 64-bit, OS = 64-bit
   Threading | NPTL 2.12
    Compiler | GNU CC version 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-4).
     SELinux | Disabled
 Virtualized | No virtualization detected
# Processor ##################################################
  Processors | physical = 2, cores = 12, virtual = 24, hyperthreading = yes
      Speeds | 24x1994.866
      Models | 24xIntel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2620 0 @ 2.00GHz
      Caches | 24x15360 KB


/usr/bin/pt-table-checksum
MySQL 主从复制校验


/usr/bin/pt-table-sync
进行两个主机中的 MySQL 数据库,或者表数据同步
注, 目标服务器中必须存在与源服务器一样的数据库及表,否则,不存在的不表无法进行同步
pt-table-sync --execute h=192.168.200.163 --database terry h=192.168.200.171 --user=root --password=123


/usr/bin/pt-variable-advisor
给与对数据库参数定义的建议

pt-variable-advisor h=localhost -p'password' --socket=/var/run/d/mysql5.socket
# WARN delay_key_write: MyISAM index blocks are never flushed until necessary.

# WARN innodb_log_file_size: The InnoDB log file size is set to its default value, which is not usable on production systems.

# NOTE log_warnings-2: Log_warnings must be set greater than 1 to log unusual events such as aborted connections.

# NOTE max_connect_errors: max_connect_errors should probably be set as large as your platform allows.

# WARN slave_net_timeout: This variable is set too high.


/usr/bin/pt-visual-explain
对 sql 进行 explain 分析并以树目录结构显示