MySQL备份与恢复之冷备

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MySQL备份与恢复之冷备

来源: 作者: 时间:2016-02-03 08:56 【

MySQL备份与恢复之冷备一 什么是冷备 用一句话概括冷备,就是把数据库服务,比如MySQL,Oracle停下来,然后使用拷贝、打包或者压缩命令对数据目录进行备份。如果数据出现异常,则可
MySQL备份与恢复之冷备
 
一 什么是冷备
 
       用一句话概括冷备,就是把服务,比如MySQL,Oracle停下来,然后使用拷贝、打包或者压缩命令对数据目录进行备份。如果数据出现异常,则可以通过备份数据恢复。冷备一般需要定制计划,比如什么时候做备份,每次对哪些数据进行备份等等。但是由于这样的备份占用过多的空间,对大数据量的环境下不一定适合,故生产环境很少使用。
 
二 冷备示意图
三 冷备实验
 
第一步,创建测试数据库,插入测试数据
> use larrydb;
Database changed
mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_larrydb |
+-------------------+
| access            |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> drop table access;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> clear
mysql> show tables;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
mysql> create table class(
    -> cid int,
    -> cname varchar(30));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> show create table class \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: class
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `class` (
  `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `cname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

mysql> create table stu(
    -> sid int,
    -> sname varchar(30),
    -> cid int) engine=myisam;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> show create table stu \G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: stu
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `stu` (
  `sid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `sname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL,
  `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

mysql> insert into class values(1,'linux'),(2,'oracle');
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> desc class;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| cid   | int(11)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| cname | varchar(30) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> desc stu;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| sid   | int(11)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| sname | varchar(30) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| cid   | int(11)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> insert into stu values(1,'larry01',1),(2,'larry02',2);
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from stu;
+------+---------+------+
| sid  | sname   | cid  |
+------+---------+------+
|    1 | larry01 |    1 |
|    2 | larry02 |    2 |
+------+---------+------+

第二步,停掉MySQL
[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop
Shutting down MySQL... SUCCESS! 

第三步,创建备份目录,并修改拥有者和所属组
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /databackup
[[email protected] ~]# chown mysql.mysql /databackup/ -R
[[email protected] ~]# ll /databackup/ -d
drwxr-xr-x. 2 mysql mysql 4096 Sep 10 17:46 /databackup/
[[email protected] ~]# cd /databackup/

第四步,冷备(使用tar命令)
[[email protected] databackup]# tar -cvPzf mysql01.tar.gz 

第五步,测试冷备的数据是否正常,我们删除掉data下的所有数据
[[email protected] databackup]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*

第六步,删除所有数据后数据库不能启动
[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL.. ERROR! The server quit without updating PID file (/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pid).


第七步,恢复数据(使用tar命令)
[[email protected] databackup]# tar -xvPf mysql01.tar.gz 

第八步,启动MySQL,然后登录MySQL,查看数据是否丢失,如果数据正常代表冷备成功
[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL.. SUCCESS! 

[[email protected] ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2012,  and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> use larrydb;
Database changed
mysql> select * from class;
+------+--------+
| cid  | cname  |
+------+--------+
|    1 | linux  |
|    2 | oracle |
+------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from stu;
+------+---------+------+
| sid  | sname   | cid  |
+------+---------+------+
|    1 | larry01 |    1 |
|    2 | larry02 |    2 |
+------+---------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 


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