MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备

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MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备

来源: 作者: 时间:2016-02-03 08:56 【

MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备一 真实环境使用冷备 在(MySQL备份与恢复之冷备)http: www 2cto com database 201311 254790 html中,我们提到了冷备。但是有个问题,我们存储的数据文件是保
MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备
 
一 真实环境使用冷备
 
       在(MySQL备份与恢复之冷备)http://www.2cto.com/database/201311/254790.html
中,我们提到了冷备。但是有个问题,我们存储的数据文件是保存在当前本地磁盘的,如果这个磁盘挂掉,那我们存储的数据不就丢失了,这样备份数据不就功亏一篑,劳而无功。所以真实环境中我们多准备几块磁盘,然后再在这些磁盘上搭建LVM,把MySQL的数据目录挂载到LVM上,这样数据就不是存储在当前磁盘上,就可以保证数据的安全性。
 
二 示意图
 
 
 
 
三 真实环境使用冷备模拟
 
第一步,需要提前规划好磁盘,这里做模拟,添加两磁盘
 
第二步,对磁盘进行分区
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sdc
 
[[email protected] ~]# ll /dev/sd[bc]1
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 17 Sep 10 18:06 /dev/sdb1
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 33 Sep 10 18:09 /dev/sdc1
 
第三步,yum安装lvm2
[[email protected] ~]# yum install lvm2 -y
 
第四步,创建物理卷
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 
  Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created
  Physical volume "/dev/sdc1" successfully created
 
 
第五步,创建卷组
[[email protected] ~]# vgcreate data /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 
  Volume group "data" successfully created
 
第六步,创建逻辑卷
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -L 2G -n mydata data
  Logical volume "mydata" created
 
第七步,格式化磁盘
[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/data/mydata 
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
131072 inodes, 524288 blocks
26214 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=536870912
16 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
  32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912
 
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (16384 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
 
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 28 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
 
第八步,冷备
[[email protected] ~]# ls /usr/local/mysql/data/
crm      ib_logfile0  mysql-bin.000001  mysql-bin.000005  mysql-bin.000009  mysql-bin.000013  mysql-bin.index      test
game     ib_logfile1  mysql-bin.000002  mysql-bin.000006  mysql-bin.000010  mysql-bin.000014  performance_schema
hello    larrydb      mysql-bin.000003  mysql-bin.000007  mysql-bin.000011  mysql-bin.000015  serv01.host.com.err
ibdata1  mysql        mysql-bin.000004  mysql-bin.000008  mysql-bin.000012  mysql-bin.000016  serv01.host.com.pid
 
[[email protected] opt]# tar -cvPzf mysql01.tar.gz /usr/local/mysql/data/
 
第九步,删除文件
[[email protected] ~]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*
 
第十步,挂载
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/data/mydata /usr/local/mysql/data/
[[email protected] ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2             9.7G  2.4G  6.8G  27% /
tmpfs                 188M     0  188M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             194M   25M  160M  14% /boot
/dev/sda5             4.0G  160M  3.7G   5% /opt
/dev/sr0              3.4G  3.4G     0 100% /iso
/dev/mapper/data-mydata
                      2.0G   67M  1.9G   4% /usr/local/mysql/data
 
第十一步,将挂载信息写入配置文件
[[email protected] opt]# echo "/dev/mapper/data-mydata /usr/local/mysql/data ext4 defaults 1 2" >> /etc/fstab 
[[email protected] opt]# tail -n1 /etc/fstab 
/dev/mapper/data-mydata /usr/local/mysql/data ext4 defaults 1 2
 
第十二步,停掉数据库
[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop
 ERROR! MySQL server PID file could not be found!
[[email protected] ~]# ps -ef | grep mysqld
root      1055     1  0 18:05 ?        00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pid
mysql     1332  1055  0 18:05 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.err --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pid --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock --port=3306
root      1885  1490  0 18:18 pts/0    00:00:00 grep mysqld
 
[[email protected] ~]# pkill -9 mysql
[[email protected] ~]# ps -ef | grep mysqld
root      1888  1490  0 18:18 pts/0    00:00:00 grep mysqld
[[email protected] ~]# chown mysql.mysql /usr/local/mysql/data/ -R
 
[[email protected] opt]# ll /usr/local/mysql/data/
total 0
[[email protected] opt]# ll /usr/local/mysql/data/ -d
drwxr-xr-x. 2 mysql mysql 4096 Sep 10 18:17 /usr/local/mysql/data/
 
第十三步,恢复数据
[[email protected] opt]# tar -xPvf mysql01.tar.gz 
 
第十四步,启动数据库,登录MySQL,然后查看数据是否丢失
[[email protected] opt]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL SUCCESS! 
 
[[email protected] ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distribution
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> use larrydb;
Database changed
mysql> show tables;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_larrydb |
+-------------------+
| class             |
| stu               |
+-------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
 
mysql> select * from class;
+------+--------+
| cid  | cname  |
+------+--------+
|    1 | linux  |
|    2 | oracle |
+------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)
 
mysql> select * from stu;
+------+---------+------+
| sid  | sname   | cid  |
+------+---------+------+
|    1 | larry01 |    1 |
|    2 | larry02 |    2 |
+------+---------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
 
第十五步,使用LVS的快照功能创建快照,快照不需要格式化。
[[email protected] opt]# lreate -L 100M -s -n smydata /dev/data/mydata 
  Logical volume "smydata" created
 
第十六步,挂载
[[email protected] opt]# mount /dev/data/smydata /mnt
[[email protected] opt]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2             9.7G  2.4G  6.8G  27% /
tmpfs                 188M     0  188M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             194M   25M  160M  14% /boot
/dev/sda5             4.0G  161M  3.7G   5% /opt
/dev/sr0              3.4G  3.4G     0 100% /iso
/dev/mapper/data-mydata
                      2.0G   98M  1.8G   6% /usr/local//data
/dev/mapper/data-smydata
                      2.0G   98M  1.8G   6% /mnt
 
第十七步,模拟数据丢失和验证快照的数据不会受本身数据的影响
[[email protected] opt]# cd /mnt
[[email protected] mnt]# ls
crm          ib_logfile1       mysql-bin.000003  mysql-bin.000008  mysql-bin.000013  mysql-bin.index
game         larrydb           mysql-bin.000004  mysql-bin.000009  mysql-bin.000014  performance_schema
hello        mysql             mysql-bin.000005  mysql-bin.000010  mysql-bin.000015  serv01.host.com.err
ibdata1      mysql-bin.000001  mysql-bin.000006  mysql-bin.000011  mysql-bin.000016  serv01.host.com.pid
ib_logfile0  mysql-bin.000002  mysql-bin.000007  mysql-bin.000012  mysql-bin.000017  test
 
#进入数据目录,创建一个文件
[[email protected] ~]# cd /usr/local/mysql/data/
[[email protected] data]# touch aa01.txt
 
#进入快照挂载目录,发现没有这个文件
[[email protected] mnt]# ls aa01.txt
ls: cannot access aa01.txt: No such file or directory
 
第十八步,备份数据
[[email protected] mnt]# cd /databackup/
[[email protected] databackup]# ll
total 976
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 995761 Sep 10 17:47 mysql01.tar.gz
[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld status
 SUCCESS! MySQL running (2198)
[[email protected] databackup]# tar -cvzf mysql02.tar.gz /mnt
 
[[email protected] mnt]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*
[[email protected] mnt]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop
 ERROR! MySQL server PID file could not be found!
[[email protected] mnt]# pkill -9 mysql
[[email protected] mnt]# ps -ef | grep mysqld | grep grep -v
 
[[email protected] mnt]# cd /usr/local/mysql/data/
[[email protected] data]# ll
total 0
 
第十九步,恢复数据,启动数据库,登录MySQL,然后查看数据是否丢失
[[email protected] data]# tar -xvf /databackup/mysql02.tar.gz
 
[[email protected] data]# ls
mnt
[[email protected] data]# cd mnt/
[[email protected] mnt]# mv ./* ../
 
[[email protected] mnt]# cd ..
[[email protected] data]# ls
crm      ib_logfile0  mysql             mysql-bin.000004  mysql-bin.000008  mysql-bin.000012  mysql-bin.000016    serv01.host.com.err
game     ib_logfile1  mysql-bin.000001  mysql-bin.000005  mysql-bin.000009  mysql-bin.000013  mysql-bin.000017    serv01.host.com.pid
hello    larrydb      mysql-bin.000002  mysql-bin.000006  mysql-bin.000010  mysql-bin.000014  mysql-bin.index     test
ibdata1  mnt          mysql-bin.000003  mysql-bin.000007  mysql-bin.000011  mysql-bin.000015  performance_schema
 
[[email protected] data]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL SUCCESS! 
[[email protected] data]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distribution
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> use larrydb;
Database changed
mysql> select * from class;
+------+--------+
| cid  | cname  |
+------+--------+
|    1 | linux  |
|    2 | oracle |
+------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
 
mysql> select * from stu;
+------+---------+------+
| sid  | sname   | cid  |
+------+---------+------+
|    1 | larry01 |    1 |
|    2 | larry02 |    2 |
+------+---------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
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