MySQL 5.5源码安装
 
首先,我们要准备MySQL,至于在什么地方,想必不用多说,这个可难不倒聪明的小伙伴们。本文使用的MySQL版本是5.5.29,假设读者已经把该版本或者5.5的其他版本准备好了,下面正式讲解怎样安装MySQL 5.5。本文的操作均在虚拟机下完成。
第一步,真实机拷贝MySQL 5.5包到下
[root@serv01 ~]# yum install /usr/bin/scp -y
[root@larrywen ule-]# scpmysql-5.5.29.tar.gz 192.168.1.11:/opt
's password:
mysql-5.5.29.tar.gz                                                                                100%   24MB  23.7MB/s  00:00
第二步,对源码进行编译需要make等命令,所以我们安装开发工具包
[root@serv01 ~]# yum grouplist | grep Devel
  Additional Development
  Desktop Platform Development
  Development tools
  Server Platform Development
[root@serv01 ~]# yum groupinstall"Development tools" -y
 
第三步,解压源码包到/usr/src目录,/usr/src是建议命令
[root@serv01 opt]# tar -xvf mysql-5.5.29.tar.gz -C /usr/src/
第四步,进入MySQL的解压目录
 
[root@serv01 opt]# cd /usr/src/mysql-5.5.29/
#安装帮助文档(可以参考这个文件进行安装)
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# vim INSTALL-SOURCE
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> cmake .
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db--user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf/etc/my.cnf
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server/etc/init.d/mysql.server
 
第五步,因为配置环境需要使用到cmake,且MySQL依赖ncurses-devel包,所以我们安装cmake和ncurses-devel
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# yum install cmake-y
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# yum install ncurses-devel -y
 
第六步,关键步骤,这一步也是和MySQL 5.1的不同之处,使用cmake命令配置环境,如下
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cmake .  \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1  \
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8  \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci  \
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306  \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysql.sock  \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data
 
解释:
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql:MySQL安装目录,推荐安装到此目录
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1:安装InnoDB存储引擎
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1:安装MyISAM存储引擎
-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1:安装内存存储引擎
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8:默认编码设置成utf8
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci:默然校验规则是utf8_general_ci
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all:支持其他所有的编码
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306:MySQL端口指定为3306
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysql.sock:指定SOCK文件路径
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data:MySQL数据目录
第七步,编译安装
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# make && make install
 
#确定安装目录存在
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# ls/usr/local/mysql/
bin COPYING  data  docs include  INSTALL-BINARY  lib man  mysql-test  README scripts  share  sql-bench support-files
第八步,添加mysql组和用户
[root@serv01 opt]# groupadd -g 500 mysql
[root@serv01 opt]# useradd -u 500 -g 500 -r -M -s /sbin/nologin mysql 
第九步,拷贝配置文件和启动脚本,并修改启动脚本的执行权限
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cpsupport-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp: overwrite `/etc/my.cnf'? y
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cpsupport-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# chmod a+x/etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# ls /usr/local/mysql/data/
mysql test
第十步,改变mysql目录的拥有者和所属组,并修改my.cnf文件,添加data目录
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# chown mysql.mysql/usr/local/mysql/ -R
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cat /etc/my.cnf |grep datadir
datadir         =/usr/local/mysql/data
第十一步,修改mysql_install_db的权限,使其可执行,并进行初始化操作
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# chmod a+xscripts/mysql_install_db
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]#./scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/--basedir=/usr/local/mysql/
WARNING: The host 'serv01.host.com' could notbe looked up with resolveip.
This probably means that your libc librariesare not 100 % compatible
with this binary MySQL version. The MySQLdaemon, mysqld, should work
normally with the exception that host nameresolving will not work.
This means that you should use IP addressesinstead of hostnames
when specifying MySQL privileges !
Installing MySQL system tables...
OK
Filling help tables...
OK
 
To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right placefor your system
 
PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THEMySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue thefollowing commands:
 
/usr/local/mysql//bin/mysqladmin -u rootpassword 'new-password'
/usr/local/mysql//bin/mysqladmin -u root -hserv01.host.com password 'new-password'
 
Alternatively you can run:
/usr/local/mysql//bin/mysql_secure_installation
 
which will also give you the option ofremoving the test
databases and anonymous user created bydefault.  This is
strongly recommended for production servers.
 
See the manual for more instructions.
 
You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd /usr/local/mysql/ ;/usr/local/mysql//bin/mysqld_safe &
 
You can test the MySQL daemon withmysql-test-run.pl
cd /usr/local/mysql//mysql-test ; perlmysql-test-run.pl
 
Please report any problems with the/usr/local/mysql//scripts/mysqlbug script!
第十二步,启动MySQL,如果出现SUCCESS,恭喜您,MySQL启动成功;如果出错,不要着急,根据日志排查错误
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]#/etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL.. SUCCESS!
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# ll/usr/local/mysql/data/ -d
drwxr-xr-x. 5 mysql mysql 4096 Sep  4 23:39 /usr/local/mysql/data/
第十三步,添加环境变量,并使其生效
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# vim~/.bash_profile
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# . !$
. ~/.bash_profile
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cat ~/.bash_profile| grep PATH
PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin/:$PATH:$HOME/bin
export PATH
第十四步,登录mysql,查看版本,如果出现版本号,则证明安装成功
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.5.29-log Sourcedistribution
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2012, and/or itsaffiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of OracleCorporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks oftheir respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' toclear the current input statement.
 
mysql> select version();
+------------+
| version() |
+------------+
| 5.5.29-log |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
mysql> exit
Bye
 
如果需要安装多个MySQL,需要修改端口,修改sock文件
[root@serv01 mysql-5.5.29]# cat /etc/my.cnf |grep -e sock -e port
port              =3306
socket           =/tmp/mysql.sock