mysql字符集查询和设置

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mysql字符集查询和设置

来源: 作者: 时间:2016-02-21 09:46 【

mysql字符集查询和设置MySQL 乱码的根源是的 MySQL 字符集设置不当的问题,本文汇总了有关查看 MySQL 字符集的命令。包括查看 MySQL 数据库服务器字符集、查看 MySQL 数据库字符集,以及数
mysql字符集查询和设置
 
MySQL 乱码的根源是的 MySQL 字符集设置不当的问题,本文汇总了有关查看 MySQL 字符集的命令。包括查看 MySQL 服务器字符集、查看 MySQL 数据库字符集,以及数据表和字段的字符集、当前安装的 MySQL 所支持的字符集等。
 
一、查看 MySQL 数据库服务器和数据库字符集。
 
> show variables like '%char%';
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------
| Variable_name            | Value                               |......
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------
| character_set_client     | utf8                                |......   -- 客户端字符集
| character_set_connection | utf8                                |......
| character_set_database   | utf8                                |......   -- 数据库字符集
| character_set_filesystem | binary                              |......
| character_set_results    | utf8                                |......
| character_set_server     | utf8                                |......   -- 服务器字符集
| character_set_system     | utf8                                |......
| character_sets_dir       | D:\MySQL Server 5.0\share\charsets\ |......
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------
 
二、查看 MySQL 数据表(table) 的字符集。
 
mysql> show table status from sqlstudy_db like '%countries%';
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------
| Name      | Engine | Version | Row_format | Rows | Collation       |......
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------
| countries | InnoDB |      10 | Compact    |   11 | utf8_general_ci |......
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------
 
三、查看 MySQL 数据列(column)的字符集。
 
mysql> show full columns from countries;
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+--------
| Field                | Type        | Collation       | .......
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+--------
| countries_id         | int(11)     | NULL            | .......
| countries_name       | varchar(64) | utf8_general_ci | .......
| countries_iso_code_2 | char(2)     | utf8_general_ci | .......
| countries_iso_code_3 | char(3)     | utf8_general_ci | .......
| address_format_id    | int(11)     | NULL            | .......
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+--------
 
四、查看当前安装的 MySQL 所支持的字符集。
 
mysql> show charset;
mysql> show char set;
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| Charset  | Description                 | Default collation   | Maxlen |
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese    | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 |
| dec8     | DEC West European           | dec8_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| cp850    | DOS West European           | cp850_general_ci    |      1 |
| hp8      | HP West European            | hp8_english_ci      |      1 |
| koi8r    | KOI8-R Relcom Russian       | koi8r_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin1   | cp1252 West European        | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 |
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European | latin2_general_ci   |      1 |
| swe7     | 7bit Swedish                | swe7_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| ascii    | US ASCII                    | ascii_general_ci    |      1 |
| ujis     | EUC-JP Japanese             | ujis_japanese_ci    |      3 |
| sjis     | Shift-JIS Japanese          | sjis_japanese_ci    |      2 |
| hebrew   | ISO 8859-8 Hebrew           | hebrew_general_ci   |      1 |
| tis620   | TIS620 Thai                 | tis620_thai_ci      |      1 |
| euckr    | EUC-KR Korean               | euckr_korean_ci     |      2 |
| koi8u    | KOI8-U Ukrainian            | koi8u_general_ci    |      1 |
| gb2312   | GB2312 Simplified Chinese   | gb2312_chinese_ci   |      2 |
| greek    | ISO 8859-7 Greek            | greek_general_ci    |      1 |
| cp1250   | Windows Central European    | cp1250_general_ci   |      1 |
| gbk      | GBK Simplified Chinese      | gbk_chinese_ci      |      2 |
| latin5   | ISO 8859-9 Turkish          | latin5_turkish_ci   |      1 |
| armscii8 | ARMSCII-8 Armenian          | armscii8_general_ci |      1 |
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode               | utf8_general_ci     |      3 |
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode               | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 |
| cp866    | DOS Russian                 | cp866_general_ci    |      1 |
| keybcs2  | DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak  | keybcs2_general_ci  |      1 |
| macce    | Mac Central European        | macce_general_ci    |      1 |
| macroman | Mac West European           | macroman_general_ci |      1 |
| cp852    | DOS Central European        | cp852_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin7   | ISO 8859-13 Baltic          | latin7_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1251   | Windows Cyrillic            | cp1251_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1256   | Windows Arabic              | cp1256_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1257   | Windows Baltic              | cp1257_general_ci   |      1 |
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset       | binary              |      1 |
| geostd8  | GEOSTD8 Georgian            | geostd8_general_ci  |      1 |
| cp932    | SJIS for Windows Japanese   | cp932_japanese_ci   |      2 |
| eucjpms  | UJIS for Windows Japanese   | eucjpms_japanese_ci |      3 |
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+
 
以上查看 MySQL 字符集命令,适用于 Windows & 。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.查找MySQL的cnf文件的位置
find / -iname '*.cnf' -print
 
/usr/share/mysql/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf 
/usr/share/mysql/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-small.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-huge.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/texmf.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/mktex.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/fmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/tex/xmltex/xmltexfmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/tex/jadetex/jadefmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-small.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-huge.cnf
 
2. 拷贝 small.cnf、my-medium.cnf、my-huge.cnf、my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf其中的一个到/etc下,命名为my.cnf 
cp /usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
 
3. 修改my.cnf
vi /etc/my.cnf
在[client]下添加
default-character-set=utf8
在[mysqld]下添加
default-character-set=utf8
 
4.重新启动MySQL 
[[email protected] ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql restart
Shutting down MySQL                                         [ 确定 ]
Starting MySQL.                                             [ 确定 ]
[[email protected] ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1
Server version: 5.1.22-rc-community-log MySQL Community Edition (GPL)
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.
 
5.查看字符集设置
mysql> show variables like 'collation_%';
+----------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name         | Value            |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_database    | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server      | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-----------------+
3 rows in set (0.02 sec)
mysql> show variables like 'character_set_%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name             | Value                       |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| character_set_client      | utf8                        |
| character_set_connection | utf8                        |
| character_set_database    | utf8                        |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                      |
| character_set_results     | utf8                        |
| character_set_server      | utf8                        |
| character_set_system      | utf8                        |
| character_sets_dir        | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.02 sec)
mysql>
 
 
其他的一些设置方法: 
 
修改数据库的字符集 
mysql>use mydb
mysql>alter database mydb character set utf-8(utf8);
创建数据库指定数据库的字符集
mysql>create database mydb character set utf-8(utf8);
 
通过配置文件修改: 
修改/var/lib/mysql/mydb/db.opt
default-character-set=latin1
default-collation=latin1_swedish_ci
default-character-set=utf8
default-collation=utf8_general_ci
重起MySQL:
[[email protected] ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql restart
 
通过MySQL命令行修改: 
mysql> set character_set_client=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set character_set_connection=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set character_set_database=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set character_set_results=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set character_set_server=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> set character_set_system=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> set collation_connection=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> set collation_database=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> set collation_server=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
查看:
mysql> show variables like 'character_set_%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name             | Value                       |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
| character_set_client      | utf8                        |
| character_set_connection | utf8                        |
| character_set_database    | utf8                        |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                      |
| character_set_results     | utf8                        |
| character_set_server      | utf8                        |
| character_set_system      | utf8                        |
| character_sets_dir        | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.03 sec)
mysql> show variables like 'collation_%';
+----------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name         | Value            |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| collation_connection | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_database    | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server      | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-----------------+
3 rows in set (0.04 sec)
 
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