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如何优雅的备份账号相关信息

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前言:

最近遇到实例迁移的问题,数据迁完后还需要将数据库用户及权限迁移过去。进行逻辑备份时,我一般习惯将MySQL系统库排除掉,这样备份里面就不包含数据库用户相关信息了。这时候如果想迁移用户相关信息 可以采用以下三种方案,类似的 我们也可以采用以下三种方案来备份数据库账号相关信息。(本文方案针对MySQL5.7版本,其他版本稍有不同)

1.mysqldump逻辑导出用户相关信息

我们知道,数据库用户密码及权限相关信息保存在系统库mysql 里面。采用mysqldump可以将相关表数据导出来 如果有迁移用户的需求 我们可以按照需求在另外的实例中插入这些数据。下面我们来演示下:

#只导出mysql库中的user,db,tables_priv表数据  #如果你有针队column的赋权 可以再导出columns_priv表数据 #若数据库开启了GTID 导出时最好加上 --set-gtid-purged=OFF mysqldump -uroot -proot mysql user db tables_priv -t --skip-extended-insert > /tmp/user_info.sql  #导出的具体信息 -- -- Dumping data for table `user` --  LOCK TABLES `user` WRITE; /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `user` DISABLE KEYS */; INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('%','root','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_native_password','* 81F5E21E35407D884A6CD4A731AEBFB6AF209E1B','N','2019-03-06 03:03:15',NULL,'N'); INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('localhost','mysql.session','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','Y','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_na tive_password','*THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE','N','2019-03-06 02:57:40',NULL,'Y'); INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('localhost','mysql.sys','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_native _password','*THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE','N','2019-03-06 02:57:40',NULL,'Y'); INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('%','test','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_native_password','* 94BDCEBE19083CE2A1F959FD02F964C7AF4CFC29','N','2019-04-19 06:24:54',NULL,'N'); INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('%','read','Y','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_native_password','* 2158DEFBE7B6FC24585930DF63794A2A44F22736','N','2019-04-19 06:27:45',NULL,'N'); INSERT INTO `user` VALUES ('%','test_user','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','',_binary '',_binary '',_binary '',0,0,0,0,'mysql_native_passwor d','*8A447777509932F0ED07ADB033562027D95A0F17','N','2019-04-19 06:29:38',NULL,'N'); /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `user` ENABLE KEYS */; UNLOCK TABLES;  -- -- Dumping data for table `db` --  LOCK TABLES `db` WRITE; /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `db` DISABLE KEYS */; INSERT INTO `db` VALUES ('localhost','performance_schema','mysql.session','Y','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N'); INSERT INTO `db` VALUES ('localhost','sys','mysql.sys','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','N','Y'); INSERT INTO `db` VALUES ('%','test_db','test','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','N','N','N','Y','N','N','Y','Y','N','N','Y','N','N'); /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `db` ENABLE KEYS */; UNLOCK TABLES;  -- -- Dumping data for table `tables_priv` --  LOCK TABLES `tables_priv` WRITE; /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `tables_priv` DISABLE KEYS */; INSERT INTO `tables_priv` VALUES ('localhost','mysql','mysql.session','user','boot@connecting host','0000-00-00 00:00:00','Select',''); INSERT INTO `tables_priv` VALUES ('localhost','sys','mysql.sys','sys_config','root@localhost','2019-03-06 02:57:40','Select',''); INSERT INTO `tables_priv` VALUES ('%','test_db','test_user','t1','root@localhost','0000-00-00 00:00:00','Select,Insert,Update,Delete',''); /*!40000 ALTER TABLE `tables_priv` ENABLE KEYS */; UNLOCK TABLES;  #在新的实例插入所需数据 就可以创建出相同的用户及权限了  

2.自定义脚本导出

首先拼接出创建用户的语句:

SELECT     CONCAT(         'create user '',     user,     ''@'',     Host,     '''     ' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '',     authentication_string,         '';'     ) AS CreateUserQuery FROM     mysql.`user` WHERE     `User` NOT IN (         'mysql.session',         'mysql.sys'     );      #结果 在新实例执行后可以创建出相同密码的用户 mysql> SELECT     -> CONCAT(     -> 'create user '',     ->     user,     ->     ''@'',     ->     Host,     ->     '''     ->     ' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '',     ->     authentication_string,     -> '';'     -> ) AS CreateUserQuery     -> FROM     -> mysql.`user`     -> WHERE     -> `User` NOT IN (     -> 'mysql.session',     -> 'mysql.sys'     -> ); +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | CreateUserQuery                                                                                 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | create user 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*81F5E21E35407D884A6CD4A731AEBFB6AF209E1B';      | | create user 'test'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*94BDCEBE19083CE2A1F959FD02F964C7AF4CFC29';      | | create user 'read'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*2158DEFBE7B6FC24585930DF63794A2A44F22736';      | | create user 'test_user'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*8A447777509932F0ED07ADB033562027D95A0F17'; | +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec) 

然后通过脚本导出用户权限:

#导出权限脚本 #!/bin/bash   #Function export user privileges     pwd=root   expgrants()   {     mysql -B -u'root' -p${pwd} -N $@ -e "SELECT CONCAT(  'SHOW GRANTS FOR ''', user, '''@''', host, ''';' ) AS query FROM mysql.user" |    mysql -u'root' -p${pwd} $@ |    sed 's/(GRANT .*)/1;/;s/^(Grants for .*)/-- 1 /;/--/{x;p;x;}'   }     expgrants > /tmp/grants.sql echo "flush privileges;" >> /tmp/grants.sql  #执行脚本后结果 -- Grants for read@%  GRANT SELECT ON *.* TO 'read'@'%';  -- Grants for root@%  GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;  -- Grants for test@%  GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'test'@'%'; GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, ALTER, EXECUTE, CREATE VIEW, SHOW VIEW ON `test_db`.* TO 'test'@'%';  -- Grants for test_user@%  GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'test_user'@'%'; GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `test_db`.`t1` TO 'test_user'@'%';  -- Grants for mysql.session@localhost  GRANT SUPER ON *.* TO 'mysql.session'@'localhost'; GRANT SELECT ON `performance_schema`.* TO 'mysql.session'@'localhost'; GRANT SELECT ON `mysql`.`user` TO 'mysql.session'@'localhost';  -- Grants for mysql.sys@localhost  GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'mysql.sys'@'localhost'; GRANT TRIGGER ON `sys`.* TO 'mysql.sys'@'localhost'; GRANT SELECT ON `sys`.`sys_config` TO 'mysql.sys'@'localhost';

3.mysqlpump直接导出用户

mysqlpump是mysqldump的一个衍生,也是MySQL逻辑备份的工具。mysqlpump可用的选项更多,可以直接导出创建用户的语句及赋权的语句。下面我们来演示下:

#exclude-databases排除数据库 --users指定导出用户 exclude-users排除哪些用户  #还可以增加 --add-drop-user 参数 生成drop user语句 #若数据库开启了GTID 导出时必须加上 --set-gtid-purged=OFF mysqlpump -uroot -proot --exclude-databases=% --users  --exclude-users=mysql.session,mysql.sys > /tmp/user.sql  #导出的结果 -- Dump created by MySQL pump utility, version: 5.7.23, linux-glibc2.12 (x86_64) -- Dump start time: Fri Apr 19 15:03:02 2019 -- Server version: 5.7.23  SET @OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS=@@UNIQUE_CHECKS, UNIQUE_CHECKS=0; SET @OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=@@FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS, FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0; SET @OLD_SQL_MODE=@@SQL_MODE; SET SQL_MODE="NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO"; SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN= 0; SET @OLD_TIME_ZONE=@@TIME_ZONE; SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00'; SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT=@@CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT; SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS=@@CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS; SET @OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION=@@COLLATION_CONNECTION; SET NAMES utf8mb4; CREATE USER 'read'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*2158DEFBE7B6FC24585930DF63794A2A44F22736' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK; GRANT SELECT ON *.* TO 'read'@'%'; CREATE USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*81F5E21E35407D884A6CD4A731AEBFB6AF209E1B' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION; CREATE USER 'test'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*94BDCEBE19083CE2A1F959FD02F964C7AF4CFC29' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK; GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'test'@'%'; GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, ALTER, EXECUTE, CREATE VIEW, SHOW VIEW ON `test_db`.* TO 'test'@'%'; CREATE USER 'test_user'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*8A447777509932F0ED07ADB033562027D95A0F17' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK; GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'test_user'@'%'; GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `test_db`.`t1` TO 'test_user'@'%'; SET TIME_ZONE=@OLD_TIME_ZONE; SET CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT=@OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT; SET CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS=@OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS; SET COLLATION_CONNECTION=@OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION; SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=@OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS; SET UNIQUE_CHECKS=@OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS; SET SQL_MODE=@OLD_SQL_MODE; -- Dump end time: Fri Apr 19 15:03:02 2019  #可以看出 导出结果只包含创建用户及赋权的语句 十分好用 #mysqlpump详细用法可参考: http://www.cnblogs.com/zhoujinyi/p/5684903.html https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/mysqlpump.html 

总结:

本篇文章介绍了三种导出数据库用户信息的方案,每种方案都给出了脚本并进行演示。同时 这三种方案稍加以封装都可以作为备份数据库用户权限的脚本。可能你还有其他方案,如:pt-show-grants等,欢迎分享出来哦,也欢迎大家收藏或者改造成更适合自己的脚本,说不定什么时候就会用到哦 特别是一个实例有好多用户时,你会发现脚本更好用哈。

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如何优雅的备份账号相关信息

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如何优雅的备份账号相关信息

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