<p><code></p> <h3 id="articleHeader0">0x000 概述</h3> <p>这篇文章是说链表,链表这种数据结构非常普遍,有时候我们根本就没有意识到用的是链表</p> <h3 id="articleHeader1">0x001 啥是链表</h3> <p>链表就是用绳子连起来的酒瓶子,酒就是数据,每个酒瓶子都连着下一个酒瓶子。</p> <p><span class="img-wrap"><img data-src="/img/bVbi49u?w=1478&amp;h=1190" src="/img/bVbi49u?w=1478&amp;h=1190" alt="clipboard.png" title="clipboard.png" style="cursor: pointer; display: inline;"></span></p> <p>链表一共有两个操作</p> <ul> <li>插入:将一个新的节点插入链表</li> <li>删除:将一个节点从链表中删除</li> </ul> <h3 id="articleHeader2">0x001 初始化</h3> <p>链表不像<a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/%e6%95%b0%e7%bb%84" title="数组" target="_blank">数组</a>、队列、栈一样需要容器,链表是通过一个数据引用另一个数据连接起来的,所以链表的初始化就是初始化第一个链表节点,这个链表作为特殊的开始节点,不作为数据。</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="function init() { return { data: 'start', next: null } }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs actionscript"><code><span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> <span class="hljs-title">init</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> { data: <span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>, next: <span class="hljs-literal">null</span> } }</code></pre> <h3 id="articleHeader3">0x002 插入节点</h3> <p>插入节点有两种情况</p> <ul> <li>直接插到最后面:直接将最后一个节点的<code>next</code>指向新的节点</li> <li>插到指定节点后面:找到这个节点,将新节点的<code>next</code>指向这个节点的<code>next</code>,并将这个节点的<code>next</code>指向新节点</li> </ul> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="function insert(node, newNode, data) { while (node) { if (data &amp;&amp; node.data === data) { if (node.next) { newNode.next = node.next } node.next = newNode return } if (!data &amp;&amp; node.next === null) { node.next = newNode return } node = node.next } }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs lua"><code><span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">function</span> <span class="hljs-title">insert</span><span class="hljs-params">(<a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/node" title="浏览关于“node”的文章" target="_blank" class="tag_link">node</a>, newNode, data)</span></span> { <span class="hljs-keyword">while</span> (node) { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (data &amp;&amp; node.data === data) { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>) { newNode.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> = node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> } node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> = newNode <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (!data &amp;&amp; node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> === null) { node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> = newNode <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> } node = node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> } }</code></pre> <h3 id="articleHeader4">0x003 删除节点</h3> <p>删除节点只需要断开<code>next</code>指向就行了</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="function delete_(node, data) { let parent = node node = node.next while (node) { if (node.data === data) { if (parent) { parent.next = node.next return } else { return } } parent = node node = node.next } throw `not found node by data: ${data}` }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs kotlin"><code>function de<a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/let" title="浏览关于“let”的文章" target="_blank" class="tag_link">let</a>e_(node, <span class="hljs-keyword">data</span>) { let parent = node node = node.next <span class="hljs-keyword">while</span> (node) { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (node.<span class="hljs-keyword">data</span> === <span class="hljs-keyword">data</span>) { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (parent) { parent.next = node.next <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> } <span class="hljs-keyword">else</span> { <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> } } parent = node node = node.next } <span class="hljs-keyword">throw</span> `not found node <span class="hljs-keyword">by</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">data</span>: ${<span class="hljs-keyword">data</span>}` }</code></pre> <h3 id="articleHeader5">0x004 使用</h3> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="let node = init() // {'data':'start','next':null} insert(node, {data: 2, next: null}) // {'data':'start','next':{'data':2,'next':null}} insert(node, {data: 3, next: null}) // {'data':'start','next':{'data':2,'next':{'data':3,'next':null}}} insert(node, {data: 4, next: null}, 2) // {'data':'start','next':{'data':2,'next':{'data':4,'next':{data: 3, next: null}}}} delete_(node, 2) // {'data':'start','next'{'data':4,'next':{data: 3, next: null}}}" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs lua"><code>let node = init() // {<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:null} <span class="hljs-built_in">insert</span>(node, {data: <span class="hljs-number">2</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>: null}) // {<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">2</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:null}} <span class="hljs-built_in">insert</span>(node, {data: <span class="hljs-number">3</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>: null}) // {<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">2</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">3</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:null}}} <span class="hljs-built_in">insert</span>(node, {data: <span class="hljs-number">4</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>: null}, <span class="hljs-number">2</span>) // {<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">2</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">4</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{data: <span class="hljs-number">3</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>: null}}}} delete_(node, <span class="hljs-number">2</span>) // {<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-string">'start'</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>{<span class="hljs-string">'data'</span>:<span class="hljs-number">4</span>,<span class="hljs-string">'next'</span>:{data: <span class="hljs-number">3</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>: null}}}</code></pre> <h3 id="articleHeader6">0x005 栗子:表单进度</h3> <p>这个栗子使用其他数据结构也可以实现,这里特意使用链表来实现就是为了演示而已</p> <ul> <li>效果<br /><span class="img-wrap"><img data-src="/img/bVbi5dd?w=336&amp;h=478" src="https://cdn.segmentfault.com/v-5cc2cd8e/global/img/squares.svg" alt="图片描述" title="图片描述" style="cursor: pointer;"></span> </li> <li> <p>视图</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text=" <div class=&quot;container&quot;> <div id=&quot;content&quot; class=&quot;mt-2&quot;></div> <p> <button class=&quot;btn btn-primary mt-2&quot; id=&quot;btn&quot;>填写下一项</button> </div> <p>" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs scala"><code>&lt;<a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/div" title="浏览关于“div”的文章" target="_blank" class="tag_link">div</a> <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span></span>=<span class="hljs-string">"container"</span>&gt; &lt;div id=<span class="hljs-string">"content"</span> <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span></span>=<span class="hljs-string">"mt-2"</span>&gt; &lt;/div&gt; &lt;button <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span></span>=<span class="hljs-string">"btn btn-primary mt-2"</span> id=<span class="hljs-string">"btn"</span>&gt;填写下一项&lt;/button&gt; &lt;/div&gt;</code></pre> </li> <li> <p>源码</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="<script src=&quot;./../index.js&quot;></script><br /> <script></p> <p> let node = init({ data: &quot;开始验证&quot;, }) insert(node, { data: &quot;个人信息&quot;, }) insert(node, { data: &quot;兴趣爱好&quot;, }) insert(node, { data: &quot;收货地址&quot;, }) let nodeNow = node document.getElementById('btn').onclick = () => { if (!<a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/node" title="node" target="_blank">node</a>Now) return <a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/let" title="let" target="_blank">let</a> p = document.createElement('p') p.innerText = <a href="http://www.js-code.com/tag/node" title="node" target="_blank">node</a>Now.data document.getElementById('content').appendChild(p) nodeNow = nodeNow.next }</p> <p></script><br /> " title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs xml"><code><span class="hljs-tag">&lt;<span class="hljs-name">script</span> <span class="hljs-attr">src</span>=<span class="hljs-string">"./../index.js"</span>&gt;</span><span class="undefined"></span><span class="hljs-tag">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name">script</span>&gt;</span> <span class="hljs-tag">&lt;<span class="hljs-name">script</span>&gt;</span><span class="javascript"> <span class="hljs-keyword">let</span> node = init({ <span class="hljs-attr">data</span>: <span class="hljs-string">"开始验证"</span>, }) insert(node, { <span class="hljs-attr">data</span>: <span class="hljs-string">"个人信息"</span>, }) insert(node, { <span class="hljs-attr">data</span>: <span class="hljs-string">"兴趣爱好"</span>, }) insert(node, { <span class="hljs-attr">data</span>: <span class="hljs-string">"收货地址"</span>, }) <span class="hljs-keyword">let</span> nodeNow = node <span class="hljs-built_in">document</span>.getElementById(<span class="hljs-string">'btn'</span>).onclick = <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-params">()</span> =&gt;</span> { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (!nodeNow) <span class="hljs-keyword">return</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">let</span> p = <span class="hljs-built_in">document</span>.createElement(<span class="hljs-string">'p'</span>) p.innerText = nodeNow.data <span class="hljs-built_in">document</span>.getElementById(<span class="hljs-string">'content'</span>).appendChild(p) nodeNow = nodeNow.next } </span><span class="hljs-tag">&lt;/<span class="hljs-name">script</span>&gt;</span> </code></pre> </li> </ul> <h3 id="articleHeader7">0x006 双向链表</h3> <p>在上面的视线中,使用<code>next</code>指向下一个节点,从方向上说,我们可以从父节点访问子节点,但是无法从子节点访问父节点,或者说,我只能从一个方向有序访问链表。在这基础上衍生出双向链表,双向链表就是在单向链表的基础上添加对上一个节点的引用</p> <ul> <li>示意图 <p><span class="img-wrap"><img data-src="/img/bVbi5dO?w=1694&amp;h=546" src="https://cdn.segmentfault.com/v-5cc2cd8e/global/img/squares.svg" alt="clipboard.png" title="clipboard.png" style="cursor: pointer;"></span></p> </li> <li> <p>节点</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="{ &quot;data&quot;:&quot;&quot;, &quot;prev&quot;:null, &quot;next&quot;:null }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs json"><code>{ <span class="hljs-attr">"data"</span>:<span class="hljs-string">""</span>, <span class="hljs-attr">"prev"</span>:<span class="hljs-literal">null</span>, <span class="hljs-attr">"next"</span>:<span class="hljs-literal">null</span> }</code></pre> </li> <li> <p>插入</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="newNdoe.prev=node.prev // 将新节点的 prev 指向当前节点的 prev newNode.next=node // 将新节点的 next 点指向当前节点 node.prev.next=newNode // 将新节点的 prev 的 next 指向新节点" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs lua"><code>newNdoe.prev=node.prev // 将新节点的 prev 指向当前节点的 prev newNode.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>=node // 将新节点的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> 点指向当前节点 node.prev.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>=newNode // 将新节点的 prev 的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> 指向新节点</code></pre> </li> <li> <p>删除</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span><br /> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="node.prev.next=node.next // 将当前节点的 prev 的 next 指向当前节点的 next node.prev=null // 将当前节点的 prev 断开 node.next.prev=node.prev// 将当前节点的 next 的 prev 指向当前节点的 prev node.next=null // 将当前节点的 next 断开" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs lua"><code>node.prev.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>=node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> // 将当前节点的 prev 的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> 指向当前节点的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> node.prev=null // 将当前节点的 prev 断开 node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>.prev=node.prev// 将当前节点的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> 的 prev 指向当前节点的 prev node.<span class="hljs-built_in">next</span>=null // 将当前节点的 <span class="hljs-built_in">next</span> 断开</code></pre> </li> </ul> <h3 id="articleHeader8">0x007 环形链表</h3> <p>环形链表就是将收尾的节点也链接起来,如果是单项链表首尾连接,那就是单项环形链表,如果是双向链表首尾连接,那就是双向循环链表。代码没有太大的差别,就是在最后一个节点<code>next</code>指向第一个,第一个节点的<code>prev</code>指向最后一个,形成一个环装</p> <ul> <li>图示 <p><span class="img-wrap"><img data-src="/img/bVbi5eM?w=904&amp;h=808" src="https://cdn.segmentfault.com/v-5cc2cd8e/global/img/squares.svg" alt="clipboard.png" title="clipboard.png" style="cursor: pointer;"></span></p> </li> </ul> <h3 id="articleHeader9">0x008 资源</h3> <ul> <li>源代码:[<a href="https://github.com/followWinter/data-structure" rel="nofollow noreferrer" target="_blank">https://github.com/followWint...</a>]</li> </ul> <p></code></p>

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