利用多线程、简单GUI实现小球的动能定理的二维可视化

<p><code></p> <p>要实现<code>小球</code>的<code>运动</code>,可以从以下几点切入:</p> <blockquote> <ol> <li> <p>小球都有那些具体特征?</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="- 涉及动能定理就需要考虑质量了,除此之外常规的几个变量也不能忘:方向、球的尺寸,所在位置以及当前速度" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs markdown"><code style="word-break: break-word; white-space: initial;"><span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>涉及动能定理就需要考虑质量了,除此之外常规的几个变量也不能忘:方向、球的尺寸,所在位置以及当前速度</code></pre> </li> <li> <p>谁能初始小球的状态?</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="- 小球的状态无非两种:(随机)默认值、人工手动输入" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs markdown"><code style="word-break: break-word; white-space: initial;"><span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>小球的状态无非两种:(随机)默认值、人工手动输入</code></pre> </li> <li> <p>谁能控制小球的运动?</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="- 我们控制小球是需要给予一定的指令的,就算是鼠标点击也是简单的指令之一,除此之外如果想要拥有稍微复杂一点的指令可以使用按钮来实现" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs markdown"><code style="word-break: break-word; white-space: initial;"><span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>我们控制小球是需要给予一定的指令的,就算是鼠标点击也是简单的指令之一,除此之外如果想要拥有稍微复杂一点的指令可以使用按钮来实现</code></pre> </li> </ol> </blockquote> <p>根据分析,我们大概能构造出大概的类,无非是一个专门描述小球状态的,一个控制所有命令的,一个构建出窗口和选项的。我们还可以在细化这三个类的功能:</p> <blockquote> <ol> <li> <p>球类</p> <ul> <li> <p>因为窗口也是二维的</p> <ul> <li> <p>构造方法仅需要包含:</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="- 质量 - 沿x、y轴的分速度 - 二维坐标表示的位置 - 颜色 - 大小" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="hljs markdown"><code><span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>质量 <span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>沿x、y轴的分速度 <span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>二维坐标表示的位置 <span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>颜色 <span class="hljs-bullet">- </span>大小</code></pre> </li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>画个小球</p> <ul> <li>颜色</li> <li>尺寸</li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>移动小球</p> <ul> <li>遇到边界直接反弹</li> <li>移动距离利用公式:距离=当前距离+速度×时间(这边直接简化成1)</li> </ul> </li> <li>小球之间的完全弹性碰撞,根据公式:</li> </ul> </li> </ol> <p><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span></p> <div class="MathJax_Display" style="text-align: center;"><span class="MathJax" id="MathJax-Element-1-Frame" tabindex="0"><nobr><span class="math" id="MathJax-Span-1" role="math" style="width: 13.15em; 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font-family: MathJax_Main;">2</span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span><span style="position: absolute; clip: rect(0.84em 1010.25em 1.227em -1000em); top: -1.287em; left: 0em;"><span style="display: inline-block; overflow: hidden; vertical-align: 0em; border-top: 1.3px solid; width: 10.251em; height: 0px;"></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 1.067em;"></span></span></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 2.347em;"></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; overflow: hidden; vertical-align: -1.112em; border-left: 0px solid; width: 0px; height: 3.02em;"></span></span></nobr></span></div> <p><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-1">frac{{{rm{(}}{{rm{m}}_1} - {m_2}){v_{10}} + 2{m_2}{v_{20}}}}{{{{rm{m}}_1} + {m_2}}}</script><br /><span class="MathJax_Preview"></span></p> <div class="MathJax_Display" style="text-align: center;"><span class="MathJax" id="MathJax-Element-2-Frame" tabindex="0"><nobr><span class="math" id="MathJax-Span-65" role="math" style="width: 13.15em; display: inline-block;"><span style="display: inline-block; position: relative; width: 10.507em; height: 0px; font-size: 125%;"><span style="position: absolute; clip: rect(0.713em 1010.51em 3.343em -1000em); top: -2.347em; left: 0em;"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-66"><span class="mfrac" id="MathJax-Span-67"><span style="display: inline-block; position: relative; width: 10.251em; height: 0px; margin-right: 0.12em; margin-left: 0.12em;"><span style="position: absolute; clip: rect(3.09em 1010.13em 4.41em -1000em); top: -4.723em; left: 50%; margin-left: -5.065em;"><span class="texatom" id="MathJax-Span-68"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-69"><span class="texatom" id="MathJax-Span-70"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-71"><span class="texatom" id="MathJax-Span-72"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-73"><span class="mo" id="MathJax-Span-74" style="font-family: MathJax_Main;">(</span></span></span></span></span><span class="texatom" id="MathJax-Span-75"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-76"><span class="msubsup" id="MathJax-Span-77"><span style="display: inline-block; 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width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span><span style="position: absolute; top: -3.85em; left: 0.833em;"><span class="mn" id="MathJax-Span-122" style="font-size: 70.7%; font-family: MathJax_Main;">1</span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span></span></span></span></span><span class="mo" id="MathJax-Span-123" style="font-family: MathJax_Main; padding-left: 0.222em;">+</span><span class="texatom" id="MathJax-Span-124" style="padding-left: 0.222em;"><span class="mrow" id="MathJax-Span-125"><span class="msubsup" id="MathJax-Span-126"><span style="display: inline-block; position: relative; width: 1.307em; height: 0px;"><span style="position: absolute; clip: rect(3.398em 1000.86em 4.171em -1000em); top: -4em; left: 0em;"><span class="mi" id="MathJax-Span-127" style="font-family: MathJax_Math-italic;">m</span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span><span style="position: absolute; top: -3.85em; left: 0.878em;"><span class="mn" id="MathJax-Span-128" style="font-size: 70.7%; font-family: MathJax_Main;">2</span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 4em;"></span></span><span style="position: absolute; clip: rect(0.84em 1010.25em 1.227em -1000em); top: -1.287em; left: 0em;"><span style="display: inline-block; overflow: hidden; vertical-align: 0em; border-top: 1.3px solid; width: 10.251em; height: 0px;"></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 1.067em;"></span></span></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; width: 0px; height: 2.347em;"></span></span></span><span style="display: inline-block; overflow: hidden; vertical-align: -1.112em; border-left: 0px solid; width: 0px; height: 3.02em;"></span></span></nobr></span></div> <p><script type="math/tex; mode=display" id="MathJax-Element-2">frac{{{rm{(}}{{rm{m}}_2} - {m_1}){v_{20}} + 2{m_1}{v_{10}}}}{{{{rm{m}}_1} + {m_2}}}</script></p> </blockquote> <p>代码如下:</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="import java.awt.Color; import java.awt.Graphics; import java.util.ArrayList; import javax.swing.JFrame; public class Ball{ /** * declare variables of ball */ private int xPos, yPos, size, xSpeed, ySpeed,mass; private Color color; /** * Constructor for objects of class Ball */ public Ball(int xPos, int yPos, int size, int xSpeed, int ySpeed, Color color,int mass) { super(); this.xPos = xPos; this.yPos = yPos; this.size = size; this.xSpeed = xSpeed; this.ySpeed = ySpeed; this.color = color; this.mass=mass; } /** * use method of Graphics to create a colorful ball * @param g A ball */ public void drawBall(Graphics g) { g.setColor(color); g.fillOval(xPos, yPos, size, size); } /** * This method tries to figure out * @param g A ball * if ball is going to hit the boundary,change its direction */ public void moveBall(Graphics g,BallFrame bf) { if (xPos+size>bf.getWidth() || xPos <0) { xSpeed = -xSpeed; } if (yPos<0 ||(yPos+size >bf.getHeight()-160)) { ySpeed = -ySpeed; } xPos += xSpeed; yPos += ySpeed; } public void collision(Graphics g, ArrayList<Ball> balls) { for (int i = 0; i < balls.size(); i++) { Ball ball = (Ball) balls.get(i); if (ball != this) { double d1 = Math.abs(this.xPos - ball.xPos); double d2 = Math.abs(this.yPos - ball.yPos); double d3 = Math.sqrt(Math.pow(d1,2) + Math.pow(d2,2)); if (d3 <= (this.size / 2 + ball.size / 2)) { /** * Using perfectly elastic collision */ this.xSpeed=((this.mass-ball.mass)*this.xSpeed+2*ball.mass*ball.xSpeed)/(this.mass+ball.mass); this.ySpeed=((this.mass-ball.mass)*this.ySpeed+2*ball.mass*ball.ySpeed)/(this.mass+ball.mass); ball.xSpeed=((ball.mass-this.mass)*ball.xSpeed+2*this.mass*this.xSpeed)/(this.mass+ball.mass); ball.ySpeed=((ball.mass-this.mass)*ball.ySpeed+2*this.mass*this.ySpeed)/(this.mass+ball.mass); } } } } } " title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="java hljs"><code class="java"><span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Color; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Graphics; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JFrame; <span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span> <span class="hljs-title">Ball</span></span>{ <span class="hljs-comment">/** * declare variables of ball */</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> xPos, yPos, size, xSpeed, ySpeed,mass; <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> Color color; <span class="hljs-comment">/** * Constructor for objects of class Ball */</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-title">Ball</span><span class="hljs-params">(<span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> xPos, <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> yPos, <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> size, <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> xSpeed, <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> ySpeed, Color color,<span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> mass)</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">super</span>(); <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xPos = xPos; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.yPos = yPos; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.size = size; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xSpeed = xSpeed; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.ySpeed = ySpeed; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.color = color; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass=mass; } <span class="hljs-comment">/** * use method of Graphics to create a colorful ball * <span class="hljs-doctag">@param</span> g A ball */</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">drawBall</span><span class="hljs-params">(Graphics g)</span> </span>{ g.setColor(color); g.fillOval(xPos, yPos, size, size); } <span class="hljs-comment">/** * This method tries to figure out * <span class="hljs-doctag">@param</span> g A ball * if ball is going to hit the boundary,change its direction */</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">moveBall</span><span class="hljs-params">(Graphics g,BallFrame bf)</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (xPos+size&gt;bf.getWidth() || xPos &lt;<span class="hljs-number">0</span>) { xSpeed = -xSpeed; } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (yPos&lt;<span class="hljs-number">0</span> ||(yPos+size &gt;bf.getHeight()-<span class="hljs-number">160</span>)) { ySpeed = -ySpeed; } xPos += xSpeed; yPos += ySpeed; } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">collision</span><span class="hljs-params">(Graphics g, ArrayList&lt;Ball&gt; balls)</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">for</span> (<span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> i = <span class="hljs-number">0</span>; i &lt; balls.size(); i++) { Ball ball = (Ball) balls.get(i); <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (ball != <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>) { <span class="hljs-keyword">double</span> d1 = Math.abs(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xPos - ball.xPos); <span class="hljs-keyword">double</span> d2 = Math.abs(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.yPos - ball.yPos); <span class="hljs-keyword">double</span> d3 = Math.sqrt(Math.pow(d1,<span class="hljs-number">2</span>) + Math.pow(d2,<span class="hljs-number">2</span>)); <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (d3 &lt;= (<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.size / <span class="hljs-number">2</span> + ball.size / <span class="hljs-number">2</span>)) { <span class="hljs-comment">/** * Using perfectly elastic collision */</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xSpeed=((<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass-ball.mass)*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xSpeed+<span class="hljs-number">2</span>*ball.mass*ball.xSpeed)/(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass+ball.mass); <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.ySpeed=((<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass-ball.mass)*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.ySpeed+<span class="hljs-number">2</span>*ball.mass*ball.ySpeed)/(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass+ball.mass); ball.xSpeed=((ball.mass-<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass)*ball.xSpeed+<span class="hljs-number">2</span>*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.xSpeed)/(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass+ball.mass); ball.ySpeed=((ball.mass-<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass)*ball.ySpeed+<span class="hljs-number">2</span>*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass*<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.ySpeed)/(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.mass+ball.mass); } } } } } </code></pre> <blockquote> <p>2.事件监听器(鼠标、按钮和文本框)</p> <ul> <li>构造方法中需要同时引入涉及文本框、按钮和小球所在的类</li> <li>如果点击鼠标,生成一个除了大小给定其他随机的彩色小球</li> <li>如果点“Play” 文本框的信息被读取,生成指定的小球</li> <li>如果点“Stop” 小球停止运动但不消失</li> <li>如果点“Reset” 文本框恢复默认值,用户可以选择重新输入</li> <li>如果点“Continue” 小球继续刚刚的运动</li> <li>如果点“Clear” 小球停止运动且线程立即中断</li> </ul> </blockquote> <p>代码如下:</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="import java.awt.Color; import java.awt.Graphics; import java.awt.event.ActionEvent; import java.awt.event.ActionListener; import java.awt.event.MouseAdapter; import java.awt.event.MouseEvent; import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.Random; import javax.swing.JFrame; public class Listener extends MouseAdapter implements ActionListener,Runnable { private BallFrame bf; private Graphics g; private Random rand = new Random(); private volatile boolean clearFlag = false, pauseFlag = false; private ArrayList<Ball> ball = new ArrayList<Ball>(); Thread playing; public Listener(BallFrame bf, ArrayList ball) { this.bf = bf; this.ball = ball; } public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) { int x = e.getX(); int y = e.getY(); Ball myball = new Ball(x, y, 30, (1+rand.nextInt(9)*(Math.random()>0.5?1:-1)), (1+rand.nextInt(9)*(Math.random()>0.5?1:-1)), new Color(rand.nextInt(255),rand.nextInt(255),rand.nextInt(255)),rand.nextInt(9)+1); ball.add(myball); } @Override public void run() { while (!clearFlag) { if(!pauseFlag) { bf.repaint(); try { Thread.sleep(30); } catch (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event) { String command = event.getActionCommand(); if (command.equals(&quot;Play&quot;)) { startPlaying(); } if (command.equals(&quot;Stop&quot;)) { stopPlaying(); } if (command.equals(&quot;Reset&quot;)) { setAllFields(); } if (command.equals(&quot;Continue&quot;)) { continuePlaying(); } if (command.equals(&quot;Clear&quot;)) { clearPlaying(); } } void setAllFields() { bf.massText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.xSpeedText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.xPositionText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.sizeText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.ySpeedText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.yPositionText.setText(&quot;0&quot;); bf.reset.setEnabled(false); bf.play.setEnabled(true); bf.Continue.setEnabled(false); bf.clear.setEnabled(true); } void startPlaying() { playing = new Thread(this); playing.start(); clearFlag = false; bf.play.setEnabled(false); bf.Continue.setEnabled(false); bf.stop.setEnabled(true); bf.reset.setEnabled(true); bf.clear.setEnabled(true); String xP=bf.xPositionText.getText(); int x=Integer.parseInt(xP); String yP=bf.yPositionText.getText(); int y=Integer.parseInt(yP); String Size=bf.sizeText.getText(); int size=Integer.parseInt(Size); String Xspeed=bf.xSpeedText.getText(); int xspeed=Integer.parseInt(Xspeed); String Yspeed=bf.ySpeedText.getText(); int yspeed=Integer.parseInt(Yspeed); String Mass=bf.massText.getText(); int mass=Integer.parseInt(Mass); Ball myball = new Ball(x, y, size, xspeed,yspeed, new Color(rand.nextInt(255),rand.nextInt(255),rand.nextInt(255)),mass); ball.add(myball); } void stopPlaying() { bf.stop.setEnabled(false); bf.play.setEnabled(true); bf.reset.setEnabled(true); bf.Continue.setEnabled(true); bf.clear.setEnabled(true); pauseFlag=true; } void continuePlaying() { bf.stop.setEnabled(true); bf.play.setEnabled(true); bf.reset.setEnabled(true); bf.Continue.setEnabled(false); bf.clear.setEnabled(true); pauseFlag=false; } void clearPlaying() { bf.clear.setEnabled(false); bf.stop.setEnabled(false); bf.play.setEnabled(true); bf.reset.setEnabled(true); bf.Continue.setEnabled(false); playing = null; clearFlag = true; ball.clear(); bf.repaint(); } }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="java hljs"><code class="java"><span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Color; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Graphics; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.event.ActionEvent; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.event.ActionListener; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.event.MouseAdapter; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.event.MouseEvent; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.util.Random; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JFrame; <span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span> <span class="hljs-title">Listener</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title">MouseAdapter</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title">ActionListener</span>,<span class="hljs-title">Runnable</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> BallFrame bf; <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> Graphics g; <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> Random rand = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Random(); <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">volatile</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">boolean</span> clearFlag = <span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>, pauseFlag = <span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>; <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> ArrayList&lt;Ball&gt; ball = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> ArrayList&lt;Ball&gt;(); Thread playing; <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-title">Listener</span><span class="hljs-params">(BallFrame bf, ArrayList ball)</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.bf = bf; <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.ball = ball; } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">mousePressed</span><span class="hljs-params">(MouseEvent e)</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> x = e.getX(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> y = e.getY(); Ball myball = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Ball(x, y, <span class="hljs-number">30</span>, (<span class="hljs-number">1</span>+rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">9</span>)*(Math.random()&gt;<span class="hljs-number">0.5</span>?<span class="hljs-number">1</span>:-<span class="hljs-number">1</span>)), (<span class="hljs-number">1</span>+rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">9</span>)*(Math.random()&gt;<span class="hljs-number">0.5</span>?<span class="hljs-number">1</span>:-<span class="hljs-number">1</span>)), <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Color(rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>),rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>),rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>)),rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">9</span>)+<span class="hljs-number">1</span>); ball.add(myball); } <span class="hljs-meta">@Override</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">run</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">while</span> (!clearFlag) { <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span>(!pauseFlag) { bf.repaint(); <span class="hljs-keyword">try</span> { Thread.sleep(<span class="hljs-number">30</span>); } <span class="hljs-keyword">catch</span> (InterruptedException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">actionPerformed</span><span class="hljs-params">(ActionEvent event)</span> </span>{ String command = event.getActionCommand(); <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (command.equals(<span class="hljs-string">"Play"</span>)) { startPlaying(); } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (command.equals(<span class="hljs-string">"Stop"</span>)) { stopPlaying(); } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (command.equals(<span class="hljs-string">"Reset"</span>)) { setAllFields(); } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (command.equals(<span class="hljs-string">"Continue"</span>)) { continuePlaying(); } <span class="hljs-keyword">if</span> (command.equals(<span class="hljs-string">"Clear"</span>)) { clearPlaying(); } } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">setAllFields</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ bf.massText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.xSpeedText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.xPositionText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.sizeText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.ySpeedText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.yPositionText.setText(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); bf.reset.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.play.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.Continue.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.clear.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">startPlaying</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ playing = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Thread(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>); playing.start(); clearFlag = <span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>; bf.play.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.Continue.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.stop.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.reset.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.clear.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); String xP=bf.xPositionText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> x=Integer.parseInt(xP); String yP=bf.yPositionText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> y=Integer.parseInt(yP); String Size=bf.sizeText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> size=Integer.parseInt(Size); String Xspeed=bf.xSpeedText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> xspeed=Integer.parseInt(Xspeed); String Yspeed=bf.ySpeedText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> yspeed=Integer.parseInt(Yspeed); String Mass=bf.massText.getText(); <span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> mass=Integer.parseInt(Mass); Ball myball = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Ball(x, y, size, xspeed,yspeed, <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Color(rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>),rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>),rand.nextInt(<span class="hljs-number">255</span>)),mass); ball.add(myball); } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">stopPlaying</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ bf.stop.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.play.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.reset.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.Continue.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.clear.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); pauseFlag=<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>; } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">continuePlaying</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ bf.stop.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.play.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.reset.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.Continue.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.clear.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); pauseFlag=<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>; } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">clearPlaying</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ bf.clear.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.stop.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); bf.play.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.reset.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); bf.Continue.setEnabled(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); playing = <span class="hljs-keyword">null</span>; clearFlag = <span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>; ball.clear(); bf.repaint(); } }</code></pre> <blockquote> <ol> <li>GUI框架</li> </ol> <ul> <li>需要文本框实现输入,两行,每行3个变量</li> <li>需要5个按钮,分别代表"Play"、"Stop"、"Reset"、"Continue"、"Clear"</li> <li>需要一个画布,可以显示出球类的动画</li> </ul> </blockquote> <p>代码如下</p> <div class="widget-codetool" style="display:none;"> <div class="widget-codetool--inner"> <span class="selectCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" title="" data-original-title="全选"></span> <span type="button" class="copyCode code-tool" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="top" data-clipboard-text="import java.awt.BorderLayout; import java.awt.FlowLayout; import java.awt.Graphics; import java.awt.Graphics2D; import java.awt.GridLayout; import java.awt.Image; import java.awt.RenderingHints; import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.Random; import javax.swing.JButton; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JLabel; import javax.swing.JPanel; import javax.swing.JTextField; import javax.swing.UIManager; public class BallFrame extends JFrame { private ArrayList<Ball> ball = new ArrayList<Ball>(); private Image img; private Graphics2D graph; // set up row 1 JPanel row1 = new JPanel(); JLabel mass = new JLabel(&quot;mass:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField massText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); JLabel xSpeed = new JLabel(&quot;xSpeed:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField xSpeedText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); JLabel xPosition = new JLabel(&quot;xPosition:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField xPositionText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); JLabel size = new JLabel(&quot;size:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField sizeText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); JLabel ySpeed = new JLabel(&quot;ySpeed:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField ySpeedText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); JLabel yPosition = new JLabel(&quot;yPosition:&quot;, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField yPositionText = new JTextField(&quot;0&quot;); // set up row 2 JPanel row2 = new JPanel(); JButton stop = new JButton(&quot;Stop&quot;); JButton Continue = new JButton(&quot;Continue&quot;); JButton clear = new JButton(&quot;Clear&quot;); JButton play = new JButton(&quot;Play&quot;); JButton reset = new JButton(&quot;Reset&quot;); public BallFrame() { super(&quot;BallGame!&quot;); setSize(600, 600); setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); /** * set to BorderLayout * This borderLayout do nothing important except makes our rows at the top. * if user perfer bottom, all we need is to change &quot;NORTH&quot; into &quot;South&quot;. */ setLayout(new BorderLayout()); add(row1, BorderLayout.NORTH); add(row2, BorderLayout.NORTH); //set to GridLayout whole framework GridLayout layout = new GridLayout(5,2,10,10); setLayout(layout); //specify how many text fields should be filled in one line. GridLayout layout2 = new GridLayout(2, 3, 10, 10); row1.setLayout(layout2); // the following process is to add them into window row1.add(mass); massText=new JTextField(); row1.add(massText); row1.add(xSpeed); xSpeedText=new JTextField(); row1.add(xSpeedText); row1.add(xPosition); xPositionText=new JTextField(); row1.add(xPositionText); row1.add(size); sizeText=new JTextField(); row1.add(sizeText); row1.add(ySpeed); ySpeedText=new JTextField(); row1.add(ySpeedText); row1.add(yPosition); yPositionText=new JTextField(); row1.add(yPositionText); add(row1); //make button in the center FlowLayout layout3 = new FlowLayout(FlowLayout.CENTER, 10, 10); row2.setLayout(layout3); row2.add(play); row2.add(stop); row2.add(reset); row2.add(Continue); row2.add(clear); add(row2); setResizable(false); setVisible(true); } //Main function, nothing else need to explain... public static void main(String[] args) { BallFrame.setLookAndFeel(); BallFrame bf = new BallFrame(); bf.UI(); } public void UI() { Listener lis = new Listener(this, ball); // Add listeners this.addMouseListener(lis); clear.addActionListener(lis); Continue.addActionListener(lis); stop.addActionListener(lis); play.addActionListener(lis); reset.addActionListener(lis); Thread current = new Thread(lis); current.start(); } /** * This method is to ensure across operation system could have a ability to show window */ private static void setLookAndFeel() { try { UIManager.setLookAndFeel( &quot;com.sun.java.swing.plaf.nimbus.NimbusLookAndFeel&quot; ); } catch (Exception exc) { // ignore error } } public void paint(Graphics g) { img = this.createImage(this.getWidth(), this.getHeight()); graph = (Graphics2D)img.getGraphics();; graph.setRenderingHint(RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING, RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON); for (int i = 0; i < ball.size(); i++) { Ball myball = (Ball) ball.get(i); myball.moveBall(graph,this); myball.collision(graph,ball); myball.moveBall(graph,this); myball.drawBall(graph); } //If the canvas's height over 160, it will hide our buttons. g.drawImage(img, 0, 160, this); } }" title="" data-original-title="复制"></span> </div> </p></div> <pre class="java hljs"><code class="java"><span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.BorderLayout; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.FlowLayout; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Graphics; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Graphics2D; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.GridLayout; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.Image; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.awt.RenderingHints; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.util.ArrayList; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> java.util.Random; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JButton; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JFrame; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JLabel; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JPanel; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.JTextField; <span class="hljs-keyword">import</span> javax.swing.UIManager; <span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-class"><span class="hljs-keyword">class</span> <span class="hljs-title">BallFrame</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title">JFrame</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> ArrayList&lt;Ball&gt; ball = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> ArrayList&lt;Ball&gt;(); <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> Image img; <span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> Graphics2D graph; <span class="hljs-comment">// set up row 1</span> JPanel row1 = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JPanel(); JLabel mass = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"mass:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField massText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); JLabel xSpeed = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"xSpeed:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField xSpeedText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); JLabel xPosition = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"xPosition:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField xPositionText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); JLabel size = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"size:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField sizeText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); JLabel ySpeed = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"ySpeed:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField ySpeedText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); JLabel yPosition = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JLabel(<span class="hljs-string">"yPosition:"</span>, JLabel.RIGHT); JTextField yPositionText = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(<span class="hljs-string">"0"</span>); <span class="hljs-comment">// set up row 2</span> JPanel row2 = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JPanel(); JButton stop = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JButton(<span class="hljs-string">"Stop"</span>); JButton Continue = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JButton(<span class="hljs-string">"Continue"</span>); JButton clear = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JButton(<span class="hljs-string">"Clear"</span>); JButton play = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JButton(<span class="hljs-string">"Play"</span>); JButton reset = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JButton(<span class="hljs-string">"Reset"</span>); <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-title">BallFrame</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">super</span>(<span class="hljs-string">"BallGame!"</span>); setSize(<span class="hljs-number">600</span>, <span class="hljs-number">600</span>); setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); <span class="hljs-comment">/** * set to BorderLayout * This borderLayout do nothing important except makes our rows at the top. * if user perfer bottom, all we need is to change "NORTH" into "South". */</span> setLayout(<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> BorderLayout()); add(row1, BorderLayout.NORTH); add(row2, BorderLayout.NORTH); <span class="hljs-comment">//set to GridLayout whole framework</span> GridLayout layout = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> GridLayout(<span class="hljs-number">5</span>,<span class="hljs-number">2</span>,<span class="hljs-number">10</span>,<span class="hljs-number">10</span>); setLayout(layout); <span class="hljs-comment">//specify how many text fields should be filled in one line.</span> GridLayout layout2 = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> GridLayout(<span class="hljs-number">2</span>, <span class="hljs-number">3</span>, <span class="hljs-number">10</span>, <span class="hljs-number">10</span>); row1.setLayout(layout2); <span class="hljs-comment">// the following process is to add them into window</span> row1.add(mass); massText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(massText); row1.add(xSpeed); xSpeedText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(xSpeedText); row1.add(xPosition); xPositionText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(xPositionText); row1.add(size); sizeText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(sizeText); row1.add(ySpeed); ySpeedText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(ySpeedText); row1.add(yPosition); yPositionText=<span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> JTextField(); row1.add(yPositionText); add(row1); <span class="hljs-comment">//make button in the center</span> FlowLayout layout3 = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> FlowLayout(FlowLayout.CENTER, <span class="hljs-number">10</span>, <span class="hljs-number">10</span>); row2.setLayout(layout3); row2.add(play); row2.add(stop); row2.add(reset); row2.add(Continue); row2.add(clear); add(row2); setResizable(<span class="hljs-keyword">false</span>); setVisible(<span class="hljs-keyword">true</span>); } <span class="hljs-comment">//Main function, nothing else need to explain...</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">static</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">main</span><span class="hljs-params">(String[] args)</span> </span>{ BallFrame.setLookAndFeel(); BallFrame bf = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> BallFrame(); bf.UI(); } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">UI</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ Listener lis = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Listener(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>, ball); <span class="hljs-comment">// Add listeners</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.addMouseListener(lis); clear.addActionListener(lis); Continue.addActionListener(lis); stop.addActionListener(lis); play.addActionListener(lis); reset.addActionListener(lis); Thread current = <span class="hljs-keyword">new</span> Thread(lis); current.start(); } <span class="hljs-comment">/** * This method is to ensure across operation system could have a ability to show window */</span> <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">static</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">setLookAndFeel</span><span class="hljs-params">()</span> </span>{ <span class="hljs-keyword">try</span> { UIManager.setLookAndFeel( <span class="hljs-string">"com.sun.java.swing.plaf.nimbus.NimbusLookAndFeel"</span> ); } <span class="hljs-keyword">catch</span> (Exception exc) { <span class="hljs-comment">// ignore error</span> } } <span class="hljs-function"><span class="hljs-keyword">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">void</span> <span class="hljs-title">paint</span><span class="hljs-params">(Graphics g)</span> </span>{ img = <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.createImage(<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.getWidth(), <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>.getHeight()); graph = (Graphics2D)img.getGraphics();; graph.setRenderingHint(RenderingHints.KEY_ANTIALIASING, RenderingHints.VALUE_ANTIALIAS_ON); <span class="hljs-keyword">for</span> (<span class="hljs-keyword">int</span> i = <span class="hljs-number">0</span>; i &lt; ball.size(); i++) { Ball myball = (Ball) ball.get(i); myball.moveBall(graph,<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>); myball.collision(graph,ball); myball.moveBall(graph,<span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>); myball.drawBall(graph); } <span class="hljs-comment">//If the canvas's height over 160, it will hide our buttons.</span> g.drawImage(img, <span class="hljs-number">0</span>, <span class="hljs-number">160</span>, <span class="hljs-keyword">this</span>); } }</code></pre> <p>输出窗口的画面截图<br /><span class="img-wrap"><img data-src="/img/bV79pL?w=600&amp;h=625" src="https://static.segmentfault.com/v-5cc2cd8e/global/img/squares.svg" alt="捣蛋小球" title="捣蛋小球" style="cursor: pointer;"></span></p> <h2 id="articleHeader0">总结</h2> <blockquote> <p>最近初学GUI,学校讲课用的是小球运动的例子,大一暑假拜读认识的学姐的一篇文章:<a href="https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/28179980" rel="nofollow noreferrer" target="_blank">我说这是一篇很严肃的技术文章你信吗</a>,出于搞清楚GUI原理和好玩的目的,我就开始了我的改进之路。总体来说是符合我的预期的,但还是有两个问题:</p> <ol> <li>忽视了错误输入可能造成异常的结果,暂时没学到在GUI如果输入错误怎么弹出界面,不过应该挺简单的,学到了再补。</li> <li>动能定理的实践出了问题,因为鼠标点击的小球生成是随机的,无法得知每个小球的情况,动能定理公式给定了,可能是算法不够精致。</li> <li><a href="https://github.com/Hephaest/BallGame" rel="nofollow noreferrer" target="_blank">Github源码</a></li> </ol> </blockquote> <p></code></p>
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